Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of Silicate, Sulfide, And Oxide Iron Formations In Norway: Evidence For Fluctuating Redox States Of Early Paleozoic Marine Basins

Tor Grenne, John F. Slack
Published 2018 · Geology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Laterally extensive silicate and sulfide iron formation associated with jasper (hematitic chert) beds and volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in Norway provide evidence of early mineral assemblages and redox conditions within coeval early Paleozoic seawater. Calculated detrital-free compositions record mixed hydrothermal (e.g., Fe, Cu) and seawater ± biogenic (e.g., Si, Ni, S, REE, P) components. Rare earth element (REE) patterns are characterized by small to large negative Ce anomalies and insignificant to locally large positive Eu anomalies, reflecting seawater REE carried to the seafloor by Fe–P-rich particles later modified by diagenetic processes. Protoliths of silicate iron formation precipitated in anoxic and intermittently euxinic deep waters by the diagenetic modification of amorphous Si–Fe oxyhydroxides and/or Si–Fe–OOH gels, based on possible modern analogues in the Red Sea. Diagenetic minerals include nontronite, greenalite, stilpnomelane, magnetite, manganosiderite, apatite, and iron sulfides. In sulfide iron formation, a local predominance of pyrrhotite over pyrite records highly reducing conditions caused by organic material. The geochemical data provide evidence for Mn–Fe–P shuttle and redox processes in a stratified basin with oxic or suboxic shallow waters and silica concentrations much higher than those of modern seawater. Hydrothermal plume-derived Fe present within the anoxic layer and near the chemocline formed mixed-valence oxyhydroxides and silicates and, intermittently, sulfides by reaction with aqueous Si and H2S, respectively, the latter derived from bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate at the chemocline. Major sustained fluxes of hydrothermally derived reductants (Fe2+, Mn2+, H2S, H2) produced from large seafloor systems such as Løkken may have changed the redox state of seawater in local, and possibly regional, basins from weakly or moderately oxic to intermittently anoxic or euxinic conditions.
This paper references
Paleoceanographic applications of trace-metal
TJ Algeo (2012)
10.1016/J.EPSL.2011.12.037
The role of fluid phase immiscibility in quartz dissolution and precipitation in sub-seafloor hydrothermal systems
Matthew Steele-MacInnis (2012)
10.2475/08.2016.01
A Holocene history of dynamic water column redox conditions in the Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea
D. S. Hardisty (2016)
10.1007/S00126-003-0346-3
Bedded jaspers of the Ordovician Løkken ophiolite, Norway: seafloor deposition and diagenetic maturation of hydrothermal plume-derived silica-iron gels
T. Grenne (2003)
10.1144/SP390.11
Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Early Ordovician suprasubduction-zone ophiolites of the Trondheim Region, Mid-Norwegian Caledonides
T. Slagstad (2013)
10.1016/J.CHEMGEO.2014.08.009
Trace metal distribution in the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea) sediments
Tea E. Laurila (2014)
Mineralogy and petrology of very-low-metamorphic grade Archaean banded iron-formations, Weld Range, Western Australia
M. Gole (1980)
10.1346/CCMN.1999.0470501
Synthesis of Smectite Clay Minerals: A Critical Review
J. T. Kloprogge (1999)
10.1016/S0016-7037(98)00279-8
Rare earth elements in seawater: particle association, shale-normalization, and Ce oxidation
D. S. Alibo (1999)
10.1016/0012-821X(92)90116-D
Development of a positive Eu anomaly during diagenesis
N. Macrae (1992)
10.1346/CCMN.1978.0260108
Synthesis of Iron Layer Silicate Minerals under Natural Conditions
H. Harder (1978)
10.1016/J.CHEMGEO.2016.10.012
Redox fluctuations in the Early Ordovician oceans: An insight from chromium stable isotopes
Joan D’Arcy (2017)
10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00174-9
SULFUR ISOTOPIC TRENDS AND PATHWAYS OF IRON SULFIDE FORMATION IN UPPER HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF THE ANOXIC BLACK SEA
T. Lyons (1997)
10.1016/J.GCA.2013.01.005
Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea
Tom Jilbert (2013)
10.1080/11035895909449137
On Exhalative-Sedimentary Ores. Replies and Discussion
Christoffer Oftedahl (1959)
10.1007/978-3-662-28603-6_37
Red Sea Geothermal Brine Deposits: Their Mineralogy, Chemistry, and Genesis
J. Bischoff (1969)
10.1007/978-3-319-39312-4_58
I Iron Formations
Clark M. Johnson (2017)
10.1029/GM091
Seafloor hydrothermal systems : physical, chemical, biological, and geological interactions
S. Humphris (1995)
10.1180/0009855023720030
Metastable Si-Fe phases in hydrothermal sediments of Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea
N. Taitel-Goldman (2002)
10.1016/J.CHEMGEO.2011.09.002
Paleoceanographic applications of trace-metal concentration data
T. Algeo (2012)
10.1016/J.CHEMGEO.2017.01.001
Redox state of seafloor hydrothermal fluids and its effect on sulfide mineralization
Shogo Kawasumi (2017)
10.1029/1999JB900309
Associations between burial diagenesis of smectite, chemical remagnetization, and magnetite authigenesis in the Vocontian trough, SE France
B. Katz (2000)
10.1016/0012-821X(83)90172-3
Nontronite from a low-temperature hydrothermal system on the Juan de Fuca Ridge
R. Murnane (1983)
10.1016/J.CHEMGEO.2007.08.006
Hydrothermal nontronite formation at Eolo Seamount (Aeolian volcanic arc, Tyrrhenian Sea)
V. M. Dekov (2007)
Jernmalmene i det vestlige Trondhjemsfelt og forholdet til kisforekomstene [ Iron ores of the western Trondheim region and their relationship to the sulphide deposits ]
H Carstens (1955)
10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00422-8
Rare earth element geochemistry of Late Devonian reefal carbonates, Canning Basin, Western Australia : Confirmation of a seawater REE proxy in ancient limestones
L. Nothdurft (2004)
10.2113/gsecongeo.75.3.445
Geochemistry, sulfur isotope composition, and accumulation rates of Red Sea geothermal deposits
W. Shanks (1980)
Norges svovelkisforekomster [Norway’s pyrite deposits
S Foslie (1926)
10.1130/GES00220.1
Seafloor-hydrothermal Si-Fe-Mn exhalites in the Pecos greenstone belt, New Mexico, and the redox state of ca. 1720 Ma deep seawater
John F. Slack (2009)
Greenalite, stilpnomelane, minnesotaite, crocidolite and carbonates in a very low-grade metamorphic Precambrian iron formation
C. Klein (1974)
10.1016/J.EPSL.2006.12.018
Suboxic deep seawater in the late Paleoproterozoic: Evidence from hematitic chert and iron formation related to seafloor-hydrothermal sulfide deposits, central Arizona, USA
J. Slack (2007)
10.1080/11035895809447201
A Theory of Exhalative-Sedimentary Ores
C. Oftedahl (1958)
10.1111/j.1365-3091.1979.tb00937.x
Origin of authigenic carbonates in sediment from the deep Bering Sea
J. Hein (1979)
10.1346/CCMN.2004.0520111
Si-Associated Goethite in Hydrothermal Sediments of the Atlantis II and Thetis Deeps, Red Sea
N. Taitel-Goldman (2004)
10.1016/0012-821X(78)90070-5
The chemistry of hydrothermal mounds near the Galapagos Rift
J. B. Corliss (1978)
10.1016/0009-2541(91)90115-8
Rare-earth element mobility during hydrothermal and metamorphic fluid-rock interaction and the significance of the oxidation state of europium
M. Bau (1991)
10.3989/scimar.2007.71n1207
Elderfield, H. (ed.) The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry
C. Pelejero (2007)
10.1016/S0009-2541(03)00036-6
Elemental mobility in phosphatic shales during concretion growth and implications for provenance analysis
D. L. Kidder (2003)
10.2138/GSRMG.43.1.469
Stable Isotopes in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Vent fluids, hydrothermal deposits, hydrothermal alteration, and microbial processes
W. Shanks (2001)
10.1016/J.MARGEO.2017.10.010
Data for: Massive Mn carbonate formation in the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea): Hydrographic conditions, temporal succession, and Mn budget calculations
Katharina Häusler (2018)
Ophiolite - hosted Cu – Zn deposits at Løkken and Høydal , Trondheim nappe complex , upper allochthon
T Grenne (1986)
Geyser-type discharge in Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea; evidence of boiling from fluid inclusions in epigenetic anhydrite
C. Ramboz (1988)
10.2113/gsecongeo.84.8.2173
The feeder zone to the Lokken ophiolite-hosted massive sulfide deposit and related mineralizations in the central Norwegian Caledonides
T. Grenne (1989)
10.5382/av100.06
Sea-floor tectonics and submarine hydrothermal systems
M. Hannington (2005)
Hydrothermal processes
H Elderfield (2003)
10.1016/J.OREGEOREV.2016.09.012
Chimneys in Paleozoic massive sulfide mounds of the Urals VMS deposits: Mineral and trace element comparison with modern black, grey, white and clear smokers
V. V. Maslennikov (2017)
10.1016/J.EPSL.2014.09.024
The isotopic composition of authigenic chromium in anoxic marine sediments: A case study from the Cariaco Basin
C. Reinhard (2014)
Iron formation: the sedimentary product
KO (2010)
A study of Paleozoic iron formations in the central Norwegian Caledonides
K Sand (1986)
Lithostratigraphy and petrochemistry of Caledonian rocks on Bømlo, southwest Norway. In: Gee DG, Sturt BA (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas
J Nordås (1985)
10.1130/2014.2506(08)
Sulfur and oxygen isotopic study of Paleozoic sediment-hosted Zn-Pb(-Ag-Au-Ba-F) deposits and associated hydrothermal alteration zones in the Nome Complex, Seward Peninsula, Alaska
W. C. Pat Shanks (2014)
Sulfide ore mineral stabilities, morphologies, and intergrowth textures.; 3
J. David (1997)
10.1016/0016-7037(91)90485-N
Distribution patterns of the elements in the ocean: A synthesis
Li Yuanhui (1991)
Ferripyrophyllite and related
Deep (1992)
10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.01120-7
13.18 – Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits
M. Hannington (2014)
10.1130/DNAG-GNA-P1
Geology of Canadian mineral deposit types
O. Eckstrand (1995)
Isotopic studies of epigenetic features in metalliferous sediment, Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea
R. Zierenberg (1988)
Bedrock map Husnes 1214–4
RB Færseth (1982)
10.1130/ABS/2017AM-296426
AN EXCEPTIONAL RECORD OF EARLY- TO MID-PALEOZOIC REDOX CHANGE FROM THE ROAD RIVER GROUP, YUKON, CANADA
Erik A Sperling (2017)
10.1029/93JB02509
Composition and sedimentation of hydrothermal plume particles from North Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge
R. Feely (1994)
10.1130/2006.1198(16)
Rare earth elements in Precambrian banded iron formations: Secular changes of Ce and Eu anomalies and evolution of atmospheric oxygen
Y. Kato (2006)
10.1180/claymin.1985.020.3.09
Occurrence of a ferrous, trioctahedral smectite in recent sediments of Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea
D. Badaut (1985)
SULFIDE.FACIES IRON FORMATION AT THE ARCHEAN MORLEY OCCURRENCE. NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO: CONTRASTS WITH OCEANIC HYDROTHERMAL DEPOSITS
P. Fralick (1989)
Metamorphosed and metamorphogenic ore deposits
M Steele-MacInnis (2012)
10.1016/J.PALAEO.2011.10.020
Sulfur isotope evidence for widespread euxinia and a fluctuating oxycline in Early to Middle Ordovician greenhouse oceans
Cara K. Thompson (2012)
10.1016/J.EPSL.2017.03.013
The formation of magnetite in the early Archean oceans
Yi-Liang Li (2017)
10.1016/J.GCA.2013.11.001
Early depositional history of metalliferous sediments in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea: Evidence from rare earth element geochemistry
Tea E. Laurila (2014)
10.1016/J.GCA.2008.04.025
Redox sensitivity of P cycling during marine black shale formation : Dynamics of sulfidic and anoxic, non-sulfidic bottom waters
C. März (2008)
10.1007/BF00225402
The Algoma-type iron-formations of the Nigerian metavolcano-sedimentary schist belts
A. Mücke (1996)
10.1016/J.CHEMGEO.2017.01.026
The hyper-enrichment of V and Zn in black shales of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Bakken Formation (USA)
Clinton T. Scott (2017)
10.1016/J.GCA.2012.06.001
An XAS study of molybdenum speciation in hydrothermal chloride solutions from 25–385 °C and 600 bar
S. Borg (2012)
10.1016/S0012-821X(04)00034-2
Barite, BIFs and bugs: evidence for the evolution of the Earth’s early hydrosphere
D. Huston (2004)
10.1016/0301-9268(95)00087-9
Distribution of yttrium and rare-earth elements in the Penge and Kuruman iron-formations, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa
M. Bau (1996)
10.1180/claymin.1992.027.2.07
Ferripyrophyllite and related Fe (super 3+) -rich 2:1 clays in Recent deposits of Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea
D. Badaut (1992)
10.1016/J.GCA.2010.07.021
Rare Earth Element and yttrium compositions of Archean and Paleoproterozoic Fe formations revisited: New perspectives on the significance and mechanisms of deposition
N. Planavsky (2010)
10.1016/J.GCA.2010.09.017
A new particulate Mn–Fe–P-shuttle at the redoxcline of anoxic basins
O. Dellwig (2010)
10.2475/AJS.298.7.537
Pyrite framboid diameter as a measure of oxygen deficiency in ancient mudrocks
P. Wignall (1998)
10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00323-3
Sulfur geochemical constraints on mesoproterozoic restricted marine deposition: lower Belt Supergroup, northwestern United States
T. Lyons (2000)
10.1016/0301-9268(94)00086-7
Chemical composition of banded iron-formations of the Griqualand West Sequence, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, in comparison with other Precambrian iron formations
U. Horstmann (1995)
10.1002/GJ.3350240403
Magmatic evolution of the Løkken SSZ Ophiolite, Norwegian Caledonides: Relationships between anomalous lavas and high-level intrusions
T. Grenne (2007)
10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0319:PAMSRS>2.0.CO;2
Paleozoic and Mesozoic silica-rich seawater: Evidence from hematitic chert (jasper) deposits
T. Grenne (2003)
Lithostratigraphy and petrochemistry of Caledonian rocks on Bømlo , southwest Norway
J Nordås (1985)
10.1016/0016-7037(96)00209-8
The size distribution of framboidal pyrite in modern sediments: An indicator of redox conditions
R. T. Wilkin (1996)
Aqueous geochemistry of rare earth elements
D. Brookins (1989)
10.1016/0025-3227(94)90089-2
Hydrothermal activity as recorded by Red Sea sediments: Sr-Nd isotopes and REE signatures
A. Cocherie (1994)
10.1029/GM091P0115
Physical and Chemical Processes of Seafloor Mineralization at Mid‐Ocean Ridges
M. Hannington (2013)
10.2113/GSECONGEO.100.8.1511
Geochemistry of Jasper Beds from the Ordovician Løkken Ophiolite, Norway: Origin of Proximal and Distal Siliceous Exhalites
T. Grenne (2005)
10.1016/J.PALAEO.2004.10.009
Pyrite framboid evidence for oxygen-poor deposition during the Permian-Triassic crisis in Kashmir
P. Wignall (2005)
10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00053-8
History of water-column anoxia in the Black Sea indicated by pyrite framboid size distributions
R. T. Wilkin (1997)
10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00235-7
The origin of clay minerals in active and relict hydrothermal deposits
S. Severmann (2004)
10.1130/GES00174.1
Trace-metal covariation as a guide to water-mass conditions in ancient anoxic marine environments
T. Algeo (2008)
Bedrock map Fitjar 1114-1
RB Færseth (1999)
10.1016/J.EPSL.2005.04.040
Hydrothermal Fe fluxes during the Precambrian: Effect of low oceanic sulfate concentrations and low hydrostatic pressure on the composition of black smokers [rapid communication]
L. Kump (2005)
10.2113/gsecongeo.85.2.344
Sea-floor sulfides at the Hoydal volcanogenic deposit, central Norwegian Caledonides
T. Grenne (1990)
10.1016/J.EPSL.2017.02.046
Oxygenation history of the Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic and the rise of land plants
M. Wallace (2017)
10.1002/2015GC006010
New insights into the mineralogy of the Atlantis II Deep metalliferous sediments, Red Sea
Tea E. Laurila (2015)
10.1038/345516a0
Hydrothermal scavenging of rare-earth elements in the ocean
C. German (1990)
Cyprus-type sulphide deposits in the western Trondheim district, central Norwegian Caledonides
T Grenne (1980)
Ancient iron formations : their genesis and use in the exploration for stratiform base metal sulphide deposits , with examples from the Bathurst mining camp
DR Lentz (2003)
Rare-earth element mobility during hydrothermal
M Clay Miner 27227–244 Bau (1991)
10.1007/S001260050215
Scandinavian Caledonide Metallogeny in a plate tectonic perspective
T. Grenne (1999)
10.1016/J.GCA.2013.10.028
Does pyrite act as an important host for molybdenum in modern and ancient euxinic sediments
A. Chappaz (2014)
Hydrothermal activity
A 126112–122 Cocherie (1994)
Sulfide ore mineral stabilities, morphologies, and intergrowth textures. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits
DJ Vaughan (1997)
10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00024-1
Yttrium and rare earth elements in fluids from various deep-sea hydrothermal systems
E. Douville (1999)
The continental crust: Its composition and evolution
S. R. Taylor (1985)
10.1016/S0031-0182(97)00069-2
Evaluation of the application of rare-earth elements to paleoceanography
W. T. Holser (1997)
10.1016/J.PALAEO.2012.03.033
Pyrite morphology and redox fluctuations recorded in the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation
Lin Wang (2012)
10.1038/NGEO2900
Iron persistence in a distal hydrothermal plume supported by dissolved-particulate exchange
J. N. Fitzsimmons (2017)
10.1130/978-0-8137-1198-0
Evolution of early earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere : constraints from ore deposits
S. Kesler (2006)
10.2113/GSECONGEO.105.3.467
Iron Formation: The Sedimentary Product of a Complex Interplay among Mantle, Tectonic, Oceanic, and Biospheric Processes
A. Bekker (2010)
Diagenetic evolution of the dop facies from the atlantis-ii-deep (red-sea) - evidence of early hydrothermal activity
P. Anschutz (1995)
Meta-exhalites as exploration guides to ore
PG Spry (2000)
Hydrothermal sedimentary rocks of the Heath Steele belt , Bathurst mining camp , New Brunswick : Part 2 . Bulk and rare earth element geochemistry and implications for origin
JM Peter (2003)
The chemistry of hydro
M Lyle (1978)
10.2113/gsecongeo.79.8.1796
Silicate facies iron-formation and strata-bound alteration; tuffaceous exhalites derived by mixing; evidence from Mn garnet-stilpnomelane rocks at Redstone, Timmins, Ontario
D. Robinson (1984)
10.2113/GSELEMENTS.7.2.107
Ferruginous Conditions: A Dominant Feature of the Ocean through Earth's History
S. Poulton (2011)
Low-temperature retrograde minerals in metamorphosed Archean banded iron-formations, Western Australia
M. Gole (1980)
10.1016/0012-821X(84)90039-6
Europium redox equilibria in aqueous solution
D. Sverjensky (1984)
10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00498-8
Particle geochemistry in the Rainbow hydrothermal plume, Mid-Atlantic Ridge
H. Edmonds (2004)
10.1016/J.JSEAES.2011.08.011
Formation of Fe–Mn–Si oxide and nontronite deposits in hydrothermal fields on the Valu Fa Ridge, Lau Basin
Zhilei Sun (2012)



Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar