Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Localization Of Mn(II)-oxidizing Activity And The Putative Multicopper Oxidase, MnxG, To The Exosporium Of The Marine Bacillus Sp. Strain SG-1

Chris A. Francis, K. L. Casciotti, B. Tebo
Published 2002 · Biology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Abstract. Dormant spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 catalyze the oxidation of manganese(II), thereby becoming encrusted with insoluble Mn(III,IV) oxides. In this study, it was found that the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity could be removed from SG-1 spores using a French press and recovered in the supernatant following centrifugation of the spores. Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections of SG-1 spores revealed that the ridged outermost layer was removed by passage through the French press, leaving the remainder of the spore intact. Comparative chemical analysis of this layer with the underlying spore coats suggested that this outer layer is chemically distinct from the spore coat. Taken together, these results indicate that this outer layer is an exosporium. Previous genetic analysis of strain SG-1 identified a cluster of genes involved in Mn(II) oxidation, the mnx genes. The product of the most downstream gene in this cluster, MnxG, appears to be a multicopper oxidase and is essential for Mn(II) oxidation. In this study, MnxG was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and used to generate polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis demonstrated that MnxG is localized to the exosporium of wild-type spores but is absent in the non-oxidizing spores of transposon mutants within the mnx gene cluster. To our knowledge, Mn(II) oxidation is the first oxidase activity, and MnxG one of the first gene products, ever shown to be associated with an exosporium.
This paper references
The Biological Chemistry of the Elements
D. Williams (1991)
Chemical composition of exosporium from spores of Bacillus cereus.
L. L. Matz (1970)
Surface enhancement of bacterial manganese oxidation: Implications for aquatic environments
K. Nealson (1980)
Molecular structure of the bacterial spore.
A. D. Warth (1978)
Manganese oxidation by spores and spore coats of a marine bacillus species.
J. D. de Vrind (1986)
Identification and molecular analysis of the Leptothrix discophora SS‐1 mofA gene, a gene putatively encoding a manganese‐oxidizing protein with copper domains
P. Corstjens (1997)
Simple charring method for determination of lipids.
J. Marsh (1966)
cumA, a Gene Encoding a Multicopper Oxidase, Is Involved in Mn2+ Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1
G. Brouwers (1999)
Role of the exosporium in the stability of the Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin.
L. Nicolás (1994)
Manganese binding and oxidation by spores of a marine bacillus.
R. Rosson (1982)
Bacillus thuringiensis HD-73 Spores Have Surface-Localized Cry1Ac Toxin: Physiological and Pathogenic Consequences.
C. Du (1996)
Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat
A. Driks (1999)
Bacterial Mn 2+ Oxidizing Systems and Multicopper Oxidases: An Overview of Mechanisms and Functions
G. Brouwers (2000)
Characterization of the exosporium of Bacillus cereus
S. Charlton (1999)
Genetic analysis of the marine manganese-oxidizing Bacillus sp. strain SG-1: protoplast transformation, Tn917 mutagenesis, and identification of chromosomal loci involved in manganese oxidation.
L. V. van Waasbergen (1993)
Cleavage of structural protein s during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T 4
UK Laemmli (1970)
Multicopper Oxidases and Oxygenases.
E. Solomon (1996)
Identification and characterization of a gene cluster involved in manganese oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1.
L. V. van Waasbergen (1996)
Properties of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.
N. K. Pandey (1979)
Enzymatic Manganese(II) Oxidation by Metabolically Dormant Spores of Diverse Bacillus Species
Chris A. Francis (2002)
Monounsaturated but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Required for Growth of the Deep-Sea BacteriumPhotobacterium profundum SS9 at High Pressure and Low Temperature
E. Allen (1999)
Surface hydrophobicity of spores of Bacillus spp.
T. Koshikawa (1989)
Evolution and protein complexity: the blue copper-containing oxidases and related proteins
Lg Ryden (1993)
Antibodies: a laboratory manual Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Surface charge properties and Cu(II) adsorption by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1
E Harlow (1988)
Surface enhancement of sporulation and manganese oxidation by a marine bacillus.
P. E. Kepkay (1982)
Structure of the bacterial endospore
Dj Tipper (1972)
Cleavage of Structural Proteins during the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4
U. Laemmli (1970)
Bacterially mediated mineral formation; insights into manganese(II) oxidation from molecular genetic and biochemical studies
B. Tebo (1997)
Vrind-de Jong EW de (1999) cumA, a gene encoding a multicopper oxidase, is involved in Mn 2+ oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1
Gj Brouwers
Surface hydrophobicity of spores of Bacillus species
T Koshikawa (1989)
Marine Bacillus spores as catalysts for oxidative precipitation and sorption of metals.
C. A. Francis (1999)
Surface Charge Properties of and Cu(II) Adsorption by Spores of the Marine Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1
Liang He (1998)
Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual
E. Harlow (1988)
A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification.
E. Bligh (1959)

This paper is referenced by
Identification of a Third Mn(II) Oxidase Enzyme in Pseudomonas putida GB-1
K. Geszvain (2016)
Manganese-oxidizing microbes and biogenic manganese oxides: characterization, Mn(II) oxidation mechanism and environmental relevance
Hao Zhou (2020)
Synergistic effects of biogenic manganese oxide and Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1 on the degradation of 17 α-ethinylestradiol.
Thị Hồng Nhung Trần (2018)
The proteome of spore surface layers in food spoiling bacteria
Wishwas Abhyankar (2014)
The molecular biogeochemistry of manganese(II) oxidation.
K. Geszvain (2012)
Diversity and bioactive potential of endospore‐forming bacteria cultured from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans
R. W. Phelan (2012)
Protein Primary and Quaternary Structure Elucidation by Mass Spectrometry
Y. Song (2015)
Mn(II) oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is influenced by flagella synthesis and surface substrate
K. Geszvain (2011)
Mn(II) Oxidation Is Catalyzed by Heme Peroxidases in “Aurantimonas manganoxydans” Strain SI85-9A1 and Erythrobacter sp. Strain SD-21
C. Anderson (2009)
Manganese in Marine Microbiology.
C. M. Hansel (2017)
Systematic perturbation of the trinuclear copper cluster in the multicopper oxidases: the role of active site asymmetry in its reduction of O2 to H2O.
A. J. Augustine (2010)
Structural Influences of Sodium and Calcium Ions on the Biogenic Manganese Oxides Produced by the Marine Bacillus Sp., Strain SG-1
Samuel M. Webb (2005)
Manganese(IV) Oxide Production by Acremonium sp. Strain KR21-2 and Extracellular Mn(II) Oxidase Activity
N. Miyata (2006)
Phylogenetic Relationships and Functional Genes: Distribution of a Gene (mnxG) Encoding a Putative Manganese-Oxidizing Enzyme in Bacillus Species
L. Mayhew (2008)
Flavin-mediated extracellular electron transfer in Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus DIF1 and Rhodococcus ruber DIF2
T. Tian (2019)
Microbial weathering of shale rock in natural and historic industrial environments
Toby Samuels (2018)
Coupled Photochemical and Enzymatic Mn(II) Oxidation Pathways of a Planktonic Roseobacter-Like Bacterium
C. M. Hansel (2006)
Substrate specificity and copper loading of the manganese-oxidizing multicopper oxidase Mnx from Bacillus sp. PL-12.
Cristina N Butterfield (2017)
Biotransformations of Manganese
B. Tebo (2007)
Biogenic manganese oxides: Properties and mechanisms of formation
B. Tebo (2004)
Metal reduction by spores of Desulfotomaculum reducens.
P. Junier (2009)
Copper Proteins: Oxidases
C. Stoj (2011)
Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus Spores in Guaymas Basin Hydrothermal Sediments and Plumes
G. Dick (2006)
Laccases of prokaryotic origin: enzymes at the interface of protein science and protein technology
L. Martins (2014)
Manganese: Its Speciation, Pollution and Microbial Mitigation
A. Sinha (2013)
Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase
Cristina N Butterfield (2013)
The effect of Ca2+ ions and ionic strength on Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1.
K. Toyoda (2013)
Structure, assembly, and function of the spore surface layers.
A. Henriques (2007)
S-layer de Bacillus sphaericus: caracterización, regulación, análisis funcional y aplicaciones
M. Allievi (2012)
Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1
Tsing Bohu (2015)
Production of biogenic manganese oxides by repeated-batch cultures of laboratory microcosms.
N. Miyata (2007)
Marine biominerals: perspectives and challenges for polymetallic nodules and crusts.
X. Wang (2009)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar