Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

QuEChERS Sample Preparation For The Determination Of Pesticides And Other Organic Residues In Environmental Matrices: A Critical Review

M. C. Bruzzoniti, L. Checchini, R. M. Carlo, S. Orlandini, L. Rivoira, M. Bubba
Published 2014 · Chemistry, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) is an extraction and clean-up technique originally developed for recovering pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. Since its introduction, and until December 2013, about 700 papers have been published using the QuEChERS technique, according to a literature overview carried out using SciFinder, Elsevier SciVerse, and Google search engines. Most of these papers were dedicated to pesticide multiresidue analysis in food matrices, and this topic has been thoroughly reviewed over recent years. The QuEChERS approach is now rapidly developing beyond its original field of application to analytes other than pesticides, and matrices other than food, such as biological fluids and non-edible plants, including Chinese medicinal plants. Recently, the QuEChERS concept has spread to environmental applications by analyzing not only pesticides but also other compounds of environmental concern in soil, sediments, and water. To the best of our knowledge, QuEChERS environmental applications have not been reviewed so far; therefore, in this contribution, after a general discussion on the evolution and changes of the original QuEChERS method, a critical survey of the literature regarding environmental applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS methodology is provided. The overall recoveries obtained with QuEChERS and other extraction approaches (e.g., accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and soxhlet extraction) were compared, providing evidence for QuEChERS higher recoveries for various classes of compounds, such as biopesticides, chloroalkanes, phenols, and perfluoroalkyl substances. The role of physicochemical properties of soil (i.e., clay and organic carbon content, as well as cation exchange capacity) and target analytes (i.e., log KOW, water solubility, and vapor pressure) were also evaluated in order to interpret recovery and matrix effect data.
This paper references
Evaluation of a modified QuEChERS method for the extraction of pesticides from agricultural, ornamental and forestal soils
María Asensio-Ramos (2010)
Rapid multiresidue determination for currently used pesticides in agricultural drainage waters and soils using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
X. Yang (2010)
Determination of Cyantraniliprole and its Major Metabolite Residues in Pakchoi and Soil Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Jianpeng Sun (2012)
Rapid analysis of organic farming insecticides in soil and produce using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
D. Drożdżyński (2009)
Adaptation and validation of QuEChERS method for the analysis of trifluralin in wind-eroded soil
Cemile Temur (2012)
Recent Developments in QuEChERS Methodology for Pesticide Multiresidue Analysis
M. Anastassiades (2007)
Determination of pesticide residues in foods by acetonitrile extraction and partitioning with magnesium sulfate: collaborative study.
S. Lehotay (2007)
New Trends in Sample Preparation Techniques for Environmental Analysis
C. Ribeiro (2014)
Evaluation of analyte protectants to improve gas chromatographic analysis of pesticides.
M. Anastassiades (2003)
Rapidmethod for chlorinated pesticide residues in nonfatty foods
PA Mills (1963)
Development and validation of an efficient automated method for the analysis of 300 pesticides in foods using twodimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
S Kitt laus (2013)
The QuEChERS Revolution
SJ Lehotay (2010)
QuEChERS sample preparation approach for mass spectrometric analysis of pesticide residues in foods.
S. Lehotay (2011)
Dissipation and residues of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites in a rape-field ecosystem using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Xiangwei You (2014)
Development of a screening method for the determination of PCBs in water using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
Jia-Wei Shi (2012)
D. T. Burns (2002)
Determination of Herbicide Propisochlor in Soil, Water and Rice by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) Method Using by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS
X. Wu (2013)
Multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with large volume injection.
Yukio Saito (2004)
Use of the term "recovery" and "apparent recovery" in analytical procedures (IUPAC Recommendations 2002)
D. T. Burns (2002)
Residue dynamics of procymidone in leeks and soil in greenhouses by smoke generator application.
Li Chen (2010)
Determination of metaflumizone residues in cabbage and soil using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ESI-MS/MS.
Fengshou Dong (2009)
Comparison of four extraction methods for the analysis of 24 pesticides in soil samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry.
C. Lesueur (2008)
Residue dynamics of pyraclostrobin in peanut and field soil by QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.
Fengzu Zhang (2012)
Multi-residue analysis of emerging pollutants in sediment using QuEChERS-based extraction followed by LC-MS/MS analysis
Alexandra Berlioz-Barbier (2013)
Dissipation of Penconazole in Tomatoes and Soil
Sherif H. Abd-Alrahman (2012)
Determination and study on residue and dissipation of benazolin-ethyl and quizalofop-p-ethyl in rape and soil
Wenbi Guan (2013)
Dissipation and Residues of Rimsulfuron in Potato and Soil Under Field Conditions
Yanbing Wu (2012)
Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after gel permeation chromatography and graphitized carbon column cleanup.
E. Ueno (2004)
Outcompeting GC for the detection of legacy chlorinated pesticides: online-SPE UPLC APCI/MSMS detection of endosulfans at part per trillion levels
Natalia Quinete (2013)
Use of Buffering and Other Means to Improve Results of Problematic Pesticides in a Fast and Easy Method for Residue Analysis of Fruits and Vegetables
K. Ate (2005)
Evaluation of the QuEChERSmethod and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis pesticide residues in water and sediment
SHG Brondi (2011)
Determination of Oxadiargyl Residues in Environmental Samples and Rice Samples
C. Shi (2010)
A simplified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe approach for the determination of trihalomethanes and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in soil matrices by fast gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.
Carmelo García Pinto (2011)
QuEChERS-Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Five Currently Used Herbicides
Mei Xin Mei (2011)
Evaluation of a modified QuEChERS extraction of multiple classes of pesticides from a rice paddy soil by LC-APCI-MS/MS.
S. Caldas (2011)
Use of automated direct sample introduction with analyte protectants in the GC-MS analysis of pesticide residues.
T. Čajka (2005)
Simplified QuEChERS approach for the extraction of chlorinated compounds from soil samples.
C. Pinto (2010)
Dispersive Solid‐Phase Extraction
B. Socas-Rodríguez (2015)
Development of a multi-residue method using acetonitrile-based extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of steroids and veterinary and human drugs at trace levels in soil.
Marie-Virginie Salvia (2012)
Application of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Selected Pesticide Residues in Sediments
Magdaléna Kvíčalová (2012)
Revisiting the advantages of the QuEChERS approach to sample preparation
SJ Lehotay (2013)
Determination of monosulfuron-ester residues in grains, straw, green plants and soil of wheat by modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS
Liuwei Zhao (2013)
Development of a simple extraction and clean-up procedure for determination of organochlorine pesticides in soil using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Audil Rashid (2010)
Statistical evaluation of the influence of soil properties on recoveries and matrix effects during the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds and steroids by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Marie-Virginie Salvia (2013)
Organic phosporus pesticides
MA Gallo (2001)
Evaluation of the QuEChERS Method and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment
Silvia H. G. Brondi (2011)
Rapid Method for Chlorinated Pesticide Residues in Nonfatty Foods
Paul A Mills (1963)
Determination of trihalomethanes in soil matrices by simplified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction and fast gas chromatography with electron capture detection.
Sara Herrero Martín (2010)
Development and optimisation of an on-line solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the simultaneous determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewater samples.
T. Vega-Morales (2012)
Simultaneous enantioselective determination of triazole fungicides in soil and water by chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Yuanbo Li (2012)
Degradation of metaflumizone in rice, water and soil under field conditions.
C. Li (2012)
Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Karaboğaz Lake from Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey
Zeynep Yurtkuran (2013)
Comparison of several extraction procedures for the determination of biopesticides in soil samples by ultrahigh pressure LC-MS/MS.
Osmar Damian Prestes (2012)
QuEChERS: a modern sample preparation method for pesticide multiresidue determination in food by chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry
O. D. Prestes (2009)
Validation of a fast and easy method for the determination of residues from 229 pesticides in fruits and vegetables using gas and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric detection.
S. Lehotay (2005)
Analysis of multiple anticoagulant rodenticides in animal blood and liver tissue using principles of QuEChERS method.
Daljit K Vudathala (2010)
VPARVUS. An extendable package of programs for explorative data analysis, classification and regression analysis
M Forina (2010)
Application of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe-based method for the simultaneous extraction of chlorophenols, alkylphenols, nitrophenols and cresols in agricultural soils, analyzed by using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.
J. A. Padilla-Sánchez (2010)
Determination of pesticide residues in food matrices using the QuEChERS methodology
Angelika M. Wilkowska (2011)
Development and validation of an efficient automated method for the analysis of 300 pesticides in foods using two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Stefan Kittlaus (2013)
Residues of chlorantraniliprole in rice field ecosystem.
Jinming Zhang (2012)
Fully-automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis at sub-ng/L levels of selected estrogens in surface water and wastewater.
L. Ciofi (2013)
Evaluation of two fast and easy methods for pesticide residue analysis in fatty food matrixes.
S. Lehotay (2005)
R. Krieger (2001)
Optimization of QuEChERS method for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in soils with diverse organic matter.
L. Correia-Sá (2012)
Development of a multi-residue enantiomeric analysis method for 9 pesticides in soil and water by chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Yuanbo Li (2013)
QuEChERS and solid phase extraction methods for the determination of energy crop pesticides in soil, plant and runoff water matrices
Nikolaos Mantzos (2013)
A study of single compound additives to minimize the matrix induced chromatographic response enhancement observed in the gas chromatography of pesticide residues
D. R. Erney (1993)
Residue analysis of 500 high priority pesticides: better by GC-MS or LC-MS/MS?
L. Alder (2006)
Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and "dispersive solid-phase extraction" for the determination of pesticide residues in produce.
M. Anastassiades (2003)
1 – Organophosphorus Compounds: An Overview
H. Chambers (1992)
Fast gas chromatography for pesticide residues analysis using analyte protectants.
M. Kirchner (2008)
Harmonized guidelines for the use of recovery information in analytical measurement
Michael Thompson (1999)
Multiresidue analysis of aromatic organochlorines in soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and QuEChERS extraction based on water/dichloromethane partitioning. Comparison with accelerated solvent extraction.
Florent Rouvière (2012)
Multiresidue pesticides analysis in soils using modified QuEChERS with disposable pipette extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction.
V. Fernandes (2013)
Ascorbic acid as analyte protectant applied within the quechers multi-method (GCMS)
MD Van Heide (2012)
Simultaneous enantioselective determination of fenbuconazole and its main metabolites in soil and water by chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Yuanbo Li (2011)
The QuEChERS method - a new approach in pesticide analysis of soils.
T. Nagel (2009)
Ombrotrophic peat bogs are not suited as natural archives to investigate the historical atmospheric deposition of perfluoroalkyl substances.
Annekatrin Dreyer (2012)
Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with amperometric detection and off-line solid-phase extraction for analysis of carbamate insecticides.
Apichai Santalad (2010)
Rapid determination of disulfoton and its oxidative metabolites in human whole blood and urine using QuEChERS extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Kiyotaka Usui (2012)
Obsolete Pesticides – A Threat to Environment, Biodiversity and Human Health
Ezra Jonathan Mrema (2013)
Dissipation and residues of bispyribac-sodium in rice and environment
Qian Zhang (2013)
Extraction and cleanup of organochlorine, organophosphate, organonitrogen, and hydrocarbon pesticides in produce for determination by gas-liquid chromatography.
Luke Ma (1975)
QuEChERS: a new sample preparation approach for the determination of ibuprofen and its metabolites in soils.
I. Bragança (2012)
Analysis of Fluopicolide and Propamocarb Residues on Tomato and Soil Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation Method in Combination with GLC and GCMS
Sanjay Kumar Sahoo (2013)
Rapid determination of phenoxy acid residues in rice by modified QuEChERS extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Urairat Koesukwiwat (2008)
Diafenthiuron residue and decline in pakchoi and soil under field application.
Lei Wang (2012)
Simplified approach for the extraction of quinclorac from soils
WangYH (2012)

This paper is referenced by
Rapid analysis of tristyrylphenol ethoxylates in cucumber-field system using supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Z. Jiang (2018)
Rapid determination of atrazine in apple juice using molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with gold nanoparticles-colorimetric/SERS dual chemosensor.
Bowen Zhao (2019)
Simultaneous determination of five common additives in insulating mineral oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection.
Maria Concetta Bruzzoniti (2016)
Methodologies for the analysis of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in sediments and plant tissue
Pedro Neves de Carvalho (2018)
Determination of selected emerging contaminants in freshwater invertebrates using a universal extraction technique and liquid chromatography accurate mass spectrometry.
Jalal T. Althakafy (2018)
Determination of steroid hormones in sediments based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (modified-QuEChERS) extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Julien Camilleri (2015)
Multi-residue methods for the determination of over four hundred pesticides in solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with gas and liquid chromatograph.
Bożena Lozowicka (2016)
Determination of aniline and quinoline compounds in textiles.
G. Luongo (2016)
An innovative method based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction coupled to desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry for screening the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams.
Monica Mattarozzi (2016)
Three approaches to minimize matrix effects in residue analysis of multiclass pesticides in dried complex matrices using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Ewa Rutkowska (2019)
Evolution and applications of the QuEChERS method
M. Á. González-Curbelo (2015)
Assessment of 3-MCPD levels in coffee and coffee substitutes by simplified QuEChERS method
Anna Sadowska-Rociek (2015)
State of the art of environmentally friendly sample preparation approaches for determination of PBDEs and metabolites in environmental and biological samples: A critical review.
Paula Bertón (2016)
Dissipation kinetics and residue of LH-2010A in cucumber and soil under greenhouse condition.
Ruijuan Li (2015)
Simultaneous determination of 24 personal care products in fish muscle and liver tissues using QuEChERS extraction coupled with ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses
Li Yao (2016)
Rapid multiplug filtration cleanup method for the determination of 124 pesticide residues in rice, wheat, and corn.
Yongtao Han (2017)
Étude de la bioaccumulation et autres effets sublétaux de contaminants organiques sur le vers de terre Eisenia andrei exposé à des concentrations environnementales
F. Chevillot (2017)
Application of QuEChERS Coupled with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS for Determination of Heterocyclic Amines in Commercial Meat Products
Chia-Chi Chang (2018)
Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography in Steroid Analysis
Fanny Salonen (2017)
Simultaneous Determination of Trace Levels of 12 Steroid Hormones in Soil Using Modified QuEChERS Extraction Followed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS)
Shuai Ma (2018)
Application of the QuEChERS procedure for analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in authentic whole blood samples by GC–MS/MS
Michal P. Dybowski (2018)
Developing tools for non-target analysis and digital archiving of organic urban water pollutants
Cathrin Veenaas (2018)
Influence of QuEChERS modifications on recovery and matrix effect during the multi-residue pesticide analysis in soil by GC/MS/MS and GC/ECD/NPD
B. Łozowicka (2017)
Determination of Valifenalate in Grape, Vegetables, and Soil Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Exploration of Its Degradation Behavior in Grape Field
Runan Li (2018)
Determination of 20 perfluoroalkyl substances in greenhouse vegetables with a modified one-step pretreatment approach coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS-MS).
Yiran Zhou (2019)
A novel QuEChERS-like method and automatic sample pre-treatment apparatus for fast determination of mercury speciation in aquatic animal samples
X. Zhang (2019)
Two-step dispersive-solid phase extraction strategy for pesticide multiresidue analysis in a chlorophyll-containing matrix by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Stanisław Walorczyk (2015)
Determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol in milk and honey using modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with polymeric monolith-based capillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Hsiang-yu Liu (2016)
Validation of an analytical method for 1,2,4-triazole in soil using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and monitoring of propiconazole degradation in a batch study.
A. Blondel (2018)
Validation and application of a QuEChERS based method for estimation of half-life of imidazolinone herbicides in soils by LC-ESI-MS/MS.
Maria Inês da Costa Marinho (2019)
Handheld, One-Step, and Rapid Electrochemical Biosensor Platform with Smartphone Interface
Jin An Wang (2017)
Simultaneous determination of 70 pesticide residues in leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum using modified QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction materials.
Yongtao Han (2015)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar