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Aptahistochemistry In Diagnostic Pathology: Technical Scrutiny And Feasibility

Bakhtiar A. Bukari, Marimuthu Citartan, E. S. Ch'ng, M. P. Bilibana, T. Rozhdestvensky, Thean-Hock Tang
Published 2017 · Biology, Medicine

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Antibodies have been the workhorse for diagnostic immunohistochemistry to specifically interrogate the expression of certain protein to aid in histopathological diagnosis. This review introduces another dimension of histochemistry that employs aptamers as the core tool, the so-called aptahistochemistry. Aptamers are an emerging class of molecular recognition elements that could recapitulate the roles of antibodies. The many advantageous properties of aptamers suited for this diagnostic platform are scrutinized. An in-depth discussion on the technical aspects of aptahistochemistry is provided with close step-by-step comparison to the more familiarized immunohistochemical procedures, namely functionalization of the aptamer as a probe, antigen retrieval, optimization with emphasis on incubation parameters and visualization methods. This review offers rationales to overcome the anticipated challenges in transition from immunohistochemistry to aptahistochemistry, which is deemed feasible for an average diagnostic pathology laboratory.
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