Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Pituitary Adenomas And Neuropsychological Status: A Systematic Literature Review

Marta Pertichetti, Simona Serioli, F. Belotti, D. Mattavelli, A. Schreiber, C. Cappelli, A. Padovani, R. Gasparotti, P. Nicolai, M. Fontanella, F. Doglietto
Published 2019 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Neurocognitive and psychological dysfunctions associated with pituitary adenomas (PAs) are clinically relevant, though probably under-reported. The aim of the current review is to provide an update on neuropsychological status, psychopathology, and perceived quality of life (QoL) in patients with PAs. A systematic research was performed in PubMed and Scopus in order to identify reports on neurocognitive, psychiatric, and psychological disorders in PAs. Prevalence of alterations, QoL evaluation, and used tests were also recorded. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Of 62,448 identified articles, 102 studies were included in the systematic review. The prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunctions was 15–83% in Cushing’s Disease (CD), 2–33% in acromegaly, mostly affecting memory and attention. Memory was altered in 22% of nonfunctioning (NF) PAs. Worsened QoL was reported in 40% of CD patients. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in CD reached 77% and in acromegaly 63%, mostly involving depression, followed by psychosis, and anxiety. The prevalence of psychopathology was up to 83% in CD, and 35% in acromegaly. Postoperative improvement in patients with CD was observed for: learning processes, overall memory, visuospatial skills, and language skills. Short-term memory and psychomotor speed improved in NFPAs. Postoperative improvement of QoL, somatic symptoms, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and coping strategies was seen in CD and acromegaly. Reports after radiotherapy are discordant. There is wide variability in used tests. PAs have been recently shown to be associated with altered neurocognitive and neuropsychological functions, as well as QoL. These data suggest the importance of a multidisciplinary evaluation for an optimal management.
This paper references
10.1210/JC.2005-1058
Long-term impaired quality of life in Cushing's syndrome despite initial improvement after surgical remission.
J. Lindsay (2006)
10.1055/s-0035-1569340
Health-related Quality of Life in Patients After Treatment of Cushing's Disease.
S. Nader (2016)
Cognitive impairment and psychopathology in patients with pituitary diseases.
A. Pereira (2012)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03555.x
Prevalence of mental disorders in acromegaly: a cross‐sectional study in 81 acromegalic patients
C. Sievers (2009)
[Psychosomatic aspects of Cushing's syndrome].
G. Schwobel (1953)
10.1097/00005053-198012000-00008
Neuropsychological Deficits in Cushing's Syndrome
T. B. Whelan (1980)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03288.x
Disease‐specific impairments in quality of life during long‐term follow‐up of patients with different pituitary adenomas
A. A. van der Klaauw (2008)
10.1210/JCEM.87.5.8493
Loss of brain volume in endogenous Cushing's syndrome and its reversibility after correction of hypercortisolism.
I. Bourdeau (2002)
10.1176/AJP.142.8.911
Diagnostic categorization of psychiatric disturbance in Cushing's syndrome.
Haskett Rf (1985)
10.1111/cen.12564
Impaired decision‐making and selective cortical frontal thinning in Cushing's syndrome
I. Crespo (2014)
10.1007/s12020-015-0736-1
Neuropsychological functioning in acromegaly: towards identification of modifiable factors to improve long-term care after remission
A. M. Pereira (2015)
10.1007/BF03345120
Effet of calcium supplementation on blood pressure in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism
F. Saleh (2003)
10.1159/000012277
Neurobehavioral Functioning of Adults with Pituitary Disease
C. Meyers (1998)
Psychiatric aspects of Cushing's syndrome.
Cohen Si (1982)
Cushing's syndrome causes irreversible effects on the human brain: a systematic review of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies
C. Andela (2015)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000002252
Cognitive functioning of patients with a PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma
Aleksandra Bala (2016)
10.1016/j.ejrad.2014.11.033
Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients.
P. Brummelman (2015)
Is there any difference in acromegaly and other chronic disease in quality of life and psychiatric morbidity? Endokrynol Pol
DM Szczesniak (2017)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2006.02462.x
Personality characteristics and quality of life in patients treated for Cushing's syndrome
N. Sonino (2006)
10.1007/s12020-015-0634-6
Impaired decision making and delayed memory are related with anxiety and depressive symptoms in acromegaly
I. Crespo (2015)
10.1192/BJP.136.2.120
Cushing's syndrome: a psychiatric study of 29 patients.
S. Cohen (1980)
10.1007/s10072-017-2980-z
The impact on cognitive functions of patients with pituitary adenoma before and after surgery
X. Wang (2017)
10.1016/j.wneu.2011.12.060
Neurocognitive changes in pituitary adenoma patients after fractionated external beam radiotherapy versus gamma knife radiosurgery.
J. Murovic (2012)
10.1530/eje-07-0259
Quality of life is decreased in female patients treated for microprolactinoma.
M. Kars (2007)
10.1210/JC.2006-0676
Quality of life in treated patients with acromegaly.
R. Kauppinen-Mäkelin (2006)
10.1007/s11102-012-0447-z
Diagnostic delay is associated with psychosocial impairment in acromegaly
S. Siegel (2012)
10.1159/000012274
Psychosomatic Aspects of Cushing’s Disease
N. Sonino (1998)
10.3109/00207458708987147
Acute psychosis in a woman with a prolactinoma.
R. Sandyk (1987)
10.5812/KOWSAR.1726913X.2597
Assessment of Cognitive Function, Mood, and Quality of Life in Hypopituitary Patients After Pituitary Adenomectomy With or Without Radiotherapy
Petry Carolina (2012)
Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations
10.1007/s00701-013-1809-7
Health-related quality of life and psychiatric symptoms improve effectively within a short time in patients surgically treated for pituitary tumors—a longitudinal study of 106 patients
M. Milian (2013)
10.1097/WNR.0000000000000757
The dysfunction of inhibition control in pituitary patients: evidence from the Go/Nogo event-related potential study
Chenglong Cao (2017)
10.1007/BF01420501
Aspects of personality in patients with pituitary adenomas
N. Sablowski (2005)
10.1046/j.1365-2265.1996.8690878.x
A prospective study of psychiatric and psychological aspects of Cushing's syndrome
W. Kelly (1996)
10.5402/2012/675310
Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life of Surgically Treated Pituitary Adenoma Patients: A Descriptive Study
A. Raappana (2012)
10.1210/JCEM-12-5-502
Personality changes in Cushing's syndrome.
A. M. Starr (1952)
10.1016/S0033-3182(86)72657-1
Correlation of bedside cognitiveand neuropsychological tests inpatients with Cushing's syndrome
M. Starkman (1986)
10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.01.010
Major depressive disorder induced by prolactinoma--a case report.
Wei-ting Liao (2014)
10.1007/s12020-009-9182-2
Psychosocial morbidity in Cushing disease: a study from India
S. Mattoo (2009)
10.1016/j.jocn.2017.01.015
The impact of transsphenoidal surgery on neurocognitive function: A systematic review
A. Alsumali (2017)
Mood disorder and secondary adrenal insufficiency after pituitary tumor operation and radiotherapy.
I. Lee (2003)
10.1007/s40618-017-0722-y
Evaluation of depressive mood and cognitive functions in patients with acromegaly under somatostatin analogue therapy
H. Alibaş (2017)
10.1159/000338408
Increased Prevalence of Anxiety-Associated Personality Traits in Patients with Cushing's Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study
C. Dimopoulou (2012)
10.1007/s12020-008-9112-8
Psychosocial morbidity in acromegaly: a study from India
S. Mattoo (2008)
10.1007/s11102-016-0761-y
Update on quality of life in patients with acromegaly
I. Crespo (2016)
10.1097/PRA.0000000000000113
Cushing Disease Presenting as Primary Psychiatric Illness: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Sean A Rasmussen (2015)
10.7326/0003-4819-117-9-711
Octreotide treatment of acromegaly. A randomized, multicenter study.
S. Ezzat (1992)
10.1159/000364878
Similar Psychopathological Profiles in Female and Male Cushing's Disease Patients after Treatment but Differences in the Pathogenesis of Symptoms
M. Milian (2014)
10.1007/s11102-014-0561-1
Towards a better quality of life (QoL) for patients with pituitary diseases: results from a focus group study exploring QoL
C. Andela (2014)
10.1210/JCEM.82.3.3834
The longitudinal course of psychopathology in Cushing's syndrome after correction of hypercortisolism.
L. Dorn (1997)
10.1016/S0306-4530(03)00151-3
The effect of growth hormone substitution on cognitive performance in adult patients with hypopituitarism
H. Oertel (2004)
10.1530/EJE-16-0875
Seven years of growth hormone (GH) replacement improves quality of life in hypopituitary patients with adult-onset GH deficiency.
M. Elbornsson (2017)
10.1016/S1096-6374(00)80013-1
Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cognitive function in adults.
P. V. van Dam (2000)
10.1055/S-2000-8144
Emotional disorders in patients with different types of pituitary adenomas and factors affecting the diagnostic process.
J. Flitsch (2000)
10.1007/s12020-013-0106-9
Self-perception of cognitive function among patients with active acromegaly, controlled acromegaly, and non-functional pituitary adenoma: a pilot study
Chris G. Yedinak (2013)
Surinach NL, Spanish AcroQol Study Group (2006) Validity and clinical applicability of the acromegaly quality of life questionnaire, AcroQoL: a 6-month prospective study
SM Webb (2006)
10.1097/00019514-200304000-00005
Quality of Life in Patients with Pituitary Tumors: A Preliminary Study
A. Baird (2003)
10.3109/10253890109115725
Cushing's Disease and Melancholia
R. Condren (2001)
10.1530/EJE-07-0838
Impact of musculoskeletal disease on quality of life in long-standing acromegaly.
A. Miller (2008)
10.1016/J.EJPHAR.2004.02.047
Insulin-like growth factor-I, cognition and brain aging.
P. V. van Dam (2004)
10.1530/EJE-07-0697
Impaired quality of life of patients with acromegaly: control of GH/IGF-I excess improves psychological subscale appearance.
M. Matta (2008)
10.4158/EP15855.OR
PATIENTS' PERCEPTION ON CLINICAL OUTCOME AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER A DIAGNOSIS OF CUSHING SYNDROME.
Vardan Papoian (2016)
10.1186/1744-859X-12-23
Psychiatric symptoms as a clinical presentation of Cushing’s syndrome
A. Tang (2013)
10.1530/EJE-14-0996
Persistent negative illness perceptions despite long-term biochemical control of acromegaly: novel application of the drawing test.
J. Tiemensma (2015)
10.1111/cen.13331
Impaired quality of life in patients with treated acromegaly despite long‐term biochemically stable disease: Results from a 5‐years prospective study
N. Kyriakakis (2017)
10.1016/j.jocn.2017.02.028
Cognitive function surrounding resection of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension: A prospective matched-control study
P. Hendrix (2017)
10.1530/EJE-14-0371
Small cerebellar cortex volume in patients with active Cushing's syndrome.
Alicia Santos (2014)
10.1016/J.IJROBP.2007.01.017
Radiotherapy is not associated with reduced quality of life and cognitive function in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.
A. V. van Beek (2007)
Psychiatric disorders associated with Cushing's syndrome.
A. Bratek (2015)
10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.02.007
Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.
D. Moher (2010)
10.1210/jc.2012-1945
Long-term cognitive impairments and attentional deficits in patients with Cushing's disease and cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma in remission.
O. Ragnarsson (2012)
10.1007/s11102-016-0750-1
Coping strategies have a strong impact on quality of life, depression, and embitterment in patients with Cushing’s disease
S. Siegel (2016)
10.1530/EJE-14-1101
MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Cushing's syndrome causes irreversible effects on the human brain: a systematic review of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.
C. Andela (2015)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03515.x
Quality of life in children and adolescents 1‐year after cure of Cushing syndrome: a prospective study
M. Keil (2009)
10.1007/s11102-015-0665-2
The quality of life in acromegalic patients with biochemical remission by surgery alone is superior to that in those with pharmaceutical therapy without radiotherapy, using the newly developed Japanese version of the AcroQoL
K. Yoshida (2015)
10.1530/EJE-12-0308
Impaired quality of life in patients in long-term remission of Cushing's syndrome of both adrenal and pituitary origin: a remaining effect of long-standing hypercortisolism?
M. Wagenmakers (2012)
10.1007/s11102-016-0756-8
Long-term outcomes of children treated for Cushing’s disease: a single center experience
Galina Yordanova (2016)
10.1001/ARCHINTE.1972.03650010100019
Psychopathology in Cushing's syndrome.
Q. Regestein (1972)
10.1097/00019616-199409000-00008
Cushing's Syndrome and Depression:
P. T. Loosen (1994)
10.1007/BF03346555
Short- and long-term changes of quality of life in patients with acromegaly: Results from a prospective study
C. Sardella (2010)
10.1016/j.wneu.2011.09.010
Neurocognitive changes in pituitary adenoma patients after gamma knife radiosurgery: a preliminary study.
Alana Tooze (2012)
10.1097/00006842-198102000-00002
Depressed Mood and Other Psychiatric Manifestations of Cushing's Syndrome: Relationship to Hormone Levels
M. Starkman (1981)
10.1530/EJE-11-1095
The burden of Cushing's disease: clinical and health-related quality of life aspects.
R. Feelders (2012)
10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.20130944
Neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunction in patients with Cushing's disease
Yu-fan Chen (2013)
10.1017/cjn.2016.295
Perioperative Quality of Life in Cushing’s Disease
V. Ye (2016)
10.1007/s11102-015-0640-y
Quality of life in Cushing’s syndrome
Alicia Santos (2015)
10.1159/000012273
Emotional Aspects of Hyperprolactinemia
L. Sobrinho (1998)
10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.09.003
Volumetric MRI analysis of hippocampal subregions in Cushing's disease: a model for glucocorticoid neural modulation.
T. Toffanin (2011)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.02118.x
Long‐term negative impact on quality of life in patients with successfully treated Cushing's disease
A. Heald (2004)
10.1159/000182736
Course of depression in Cushing's syndrome: response to treatment and comparison with Graves' disease.
N. Sonino (1993)
10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.02383.x
Are patients with pituitary adenomas at an increased risk of mental disorders?
Z. Korali (2003)
10.1016/J.ECL.2005.01.016
Cognitive function and cerebral assessment in patients who have Cushing's syndrome.
I. Bourdeau (2005)
10.3275/8761
Quality of life in female patients with acromegaly
O. Celik (2012)
10.1177/10547730022158672
Cognitive Function in Patients with Cushing Syndrome
L. Dorn (2000)
10.1530/EJE-15-0600
Cardiovascular risk and white matter lesions after endocrine control of Cushing's syndrome.
Alicia Santos (2015)
10.1210/JC.2004-1375
Quality of life in patients after long-term biochemical cure of Cushing's disease.
M. O. van Aken (2005)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02951.x
Psychosocial impairment in patients treated for pituitary disease: a controlled study
N. Sonino (2007)
10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00203-6
Decrease in cortisol reverses human hippocampal atrophy following treatment of Cushing’s disease
M. Starkman (1999)
10.1038/npp.2015.38
Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Patients with Long-Term Remission of Cushing’s Disease
S. J. V. D. Werff (2015)
10.1210/JC.2004-1565
Quality of life (QOL) in patients with acromegaly is severely impaired: use of a novel measure of QOL: acromegaly quality of life questionnaire.
S. Rowles (2005)
Patient - focussed outcomes in acromeg
A Bala (2016)
10.1007/s40265-017-0735-z
Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome: Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management
Alicia Santos (2017)
10.1159/000314317
Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Cushing’s Syndrome
A. Pereira (2010)
10.1210/JCEM.83.9.5112
Effects of physiological growth hormone (GH) therapy on cognition and quality of life in patients with adult-onset GH deficiency.
H. B. Baum (1998)
10.1016/j.ghir.2014.12.003
Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.
E. Hatipoğlu (2015)
Measurements of quality of life in patients with growth hormone deficiency.
Webb Sm (2008)
10.1136/jnnp.65.6.870
Cognitive effects of pituitary tumours and their treatments: two case studies and an investigation of 90 patients
E. Guinan (1998)
10.1530/EJE-11-0307
Negative illness perceptions are associated with impaired quality of life in patients after long-term remission of Cushing's syndrome.
J. Tiemensma (2011)
Marchel A (2016) Cognitive functioning of patients with a PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma
A Bala (2016)
10.1176/AJP.145.3.390-C
Phenomenology and family history of affective disorder in Cushing's disease.
M. Starkman (1988)
10.1210/jc.2010-1253
Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly.
J. Tiemensma (2010)
10.1093/QJMED/89.7.543
Psychiatric aspects of Cushing's syndrome.
W. Kelly (1996)
10.1001/ARCHINTE.1981.00340020077021
Neuropsychiatric manifestations of patients with Cushing's syndrome. Relationship to cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels.
M. Starkman (1981)
10.1159/000012275
Psychological Features of Acromegaly
K. Furman (1998)
10.1210/jc.2010-2490
Coping strategies in patients after treatment for functioning or nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
J. Tiemensma (2011)
10.1023/A:1009926122406
Role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in Acromegaly
IvorMichael David Jackson (2004)
10.1007/s12020-014-0236-8
Perception of health and cognitive dysfunction in acromegaly patients
I. Crespo (2014)
10.1210/jc.2010-2742
Patients previously treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas have disturbed sleep characteristics, circadian movement rhythm, and subjective sleep quality.
N. R. Biermasz (2011)
10.1159/000355622
Tuebingen CD-25 Is a Sensitive Tool to Investigate Health-Related Quality of Life in Cushing's Disease Patients in the Course of the Disease
M. Milian (2013)
10.1111/j.1365-2362.2012.02721.x
Effects of previous growth hormone excess and current medical treatment for acromegaly on cognition
P. Brummelman (2012)
10.1007/s11102-017-0831-9
Evidence of dysexecutive syndrome in patients with acromegaly
S. Shan (2017)
10.1176/appi.psy.51.5.370
Management of psychosis associated with a prolactinoma: case report and review of the literature.
Shirin Ali (2010)
10.1212/WNL.59.1.40
Late cognitive and radiographic changes related to radiotherapy: Initial prospective findings
C. Armstrong (2002)
10.1530/EJE-13-0471
Smaller grey matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex and greater cerebellar volumes in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease: a case-control study.
C. D. Andela (2013)
10.1007/s11102-016-0772-8
Acromegaly: clinical features at diagnosis
L. Vilar (2016)
10.1507/ENDOCRJ.EJ12-0424
Acromegaly is associated with higher frequency of female sexual dysfunction: experience of a single center.
O. Celik (2013)
10.1016/J.CLON.2004.01.012
Evaluation of the effect of radiotherapy for pituitary tumours on cognitive function and quality of life.
R. Noad (2004)
Quality of life in patients after longterm biochemical cure of Cushing’s disease
MO Van Aken (2005)
333–340 Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations
Alcalar N et al Evaluation of depression (2020)
10.1186/1477-7525-3-63
Differential effect sizes of growth hormone replacement on quality of life, well-being and health status in growth hormone deficient patients: a meta-analysis
J. B. Deijen (2005)
10.3275/7045
Psychiatric and neuropsychological changes in growth hormone-deficient patients after traumatic brain injury in response to growth hormone therapy.
N. Maric (2010)
10.1530/EJE-08-0896
Personality in patients with pituitary adenomas is characterized by increased anxiety-related traits: comparison of 70 acromegalic patients with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas and age- and gender-matched controls.
C. Sievers (2009)
10.1046/j.1365-2265.2002.01597.x
Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire (ACROQOL) a new health‐related quality of life questionnaire for patients with acromegaly: development and psychometric properties
S. Webb (2002)
10.1016/j.bandc.2009.02.013
Chronic glucocorticoid hypersecretion in Cushing’s syndrome exacerbates cognitive aging
Kathy Michaud (2009)
10.1016/j.clineuro.2017.03.009
Neurocognitive status in patients with newly-diagnosed brain tumors in good neurological condition: The impact of tumor type, volume, and location
P. Hendrix (2017)
10.1111/j.1600-0404.1992.tb05500.x
Neuropsychological abnormalities in patients with pituitary tumours
P. Grattan-Smith (1992)
10.1192/BJP.142.1.16
Cushing's syndrome and depression--a prospective study of 26 patients.
W. Kelly (1983)
Correlation of bedside cognitive and neuropsychological tests in patients with Cushing's syndrome.
M. Starkman (1986)
10.1159/000181547
Octreotide treatment of acromegaly.
J. Wass (1990)
10.5603/EP.a2017.0044
Is there any difference in acromegaly and other chronic disease in quality of life and psychiatric morbidity?
D. Szcześniak (2017)
Quality of life in women with microprolactinoma treated with dopamine agonists. Pituitary
E Cesar de Oliveira Naliato (2008)
10.1007/s11102-012-0425-5
Evaluation of depression, quality of life and body image in patients with Cushing’s disease
Nilufer Alcalar (2012)
10.3389/fendo.2014.00229
Health Outcomes in Acromegaly: Depression and Anxiety are Promising Targets for Improving Reduced Quality of Life
V. Geraedts (2015)
10.1192/BJP.122.5.599
A case of acromegaly and gigantism with depression.
T. L. Avery (1973)
10.1159/000335996
Distinct Dopaminergic Personality Patterns in Patients with Prolactinomas: A Comparison with Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Patients and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls
A. P. Athanasoulia (2012)
10.1023/A:1022145116901
Self Image and Quality of Life in Acromegaly
P. Pantanetti (2004)
10.1007/s11102-015-0636-7
Quality of life (QoL) impairments in patients with a pituitary adenoma: a systematic review of QoL studies
C. Andela (2015)
10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0182
Changes in quality of life in patients with acromegaly after surgical remission - A prospective study using SF-36 questionnaire.
S. Fujio (2017)
Mood Disorder due to Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma with a Major Depressive-like Episode in a Postmenopausal Woman
H. Chang (2007)
Mania in Cushing's syndrome: case report.
Karen Reed (1983)
10.1016/0306-4530(92)90040-E
The brain as a target for adrenocortical steroids: Cognitive implications
E. Martignoni (1992)
10.1210/JC.2004-0669
Decreased quality of life in patients with acromegaly despite long-term cure of growth hormone excess.
N. Biermasz (2004)
10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00059-2
Persistent cognitive impairment following surgical treatment of Cushing's syndrome
H. Forget (2002)
10.1016/j.ecl.2013.05.010
Neuropsychiatric findings in Cushing syndrome and exogenous glucocorticoid administration.
M. Starkman (2013)
10.1007/s11102-008-0091-9
Quality of life in women with microprolactinoma treated with dopamine agonists
Erika Cesar de Oliveira Naliato (2008)
10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.2016.06.019
Advances in Evaluation of Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Cushing's Disease.
Wei-Yu Mao (2016)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.03169.x
Previous radiotherapy negatively influences quality of life during 4 years of follow‐up in patients cured from acromegaly
A. A. van der Klaauw (2008)
10.1007/s11102-011-0326-z
Cognitive function in acromegaly: description and brain volumetric correlates
C. Sievers (2011)
10.1016/j.nicl.2014.01.017
Widespread reductions of white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease
S. V. D. van der Werff (2014)
10.1371/journal.pone.0060041
Neurocognitive Function in Acromegaly after Surgical Resection of GH-Secreting Adenoma versus Naïve Acromegaly
J. F. Martín-Rodríguez (2013)
10.1210/jc.2010-0512
Increased prevalence of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits after long-term cure of Cushing's disease.
J. Tiemensma (2010)
10.1007/s11102-008-0143-1
Macroscopic brain architecture changes and white matter pathology in acromegaly: a clinicoradiological study
C. Sievers (2008)
10.4103/2230-8210.126586
Etiology and clinical profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome: A single center experience
A. C. Ammini (2014)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02891.x
Treatment of acromegaly improves quality of life, measured by AcroQol
A. Paisley (2007)
10.1530/EJE-16-0779
Affective alterations in patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission are associated with decreased BDNF and cortisone levels.
E. Valassi (2017)
10.1210/jc.2009-2032
Subtle cognitive impairments in patients with long-term cure of Cushing's disease.
J. Tiemensma (2010)
10.1111/j.1600-0447.1987.tb02848.x
Psychiatric morbidity in acromegaly
Riadh T. Abed (1987)
10.1017/S1355617707070051
Patterns of cognitive change over time and relationship to age following successful treatment of Cushing's disease.
Julie N Hook (2007)
10.1017/S1355617710001645
Deteriorated executive functions in patients with successful surgery for pituitary adenomas compared with other chronically ill patients.
K. Müssig (2011)
10.1159/000448519
Body Image Perception in Acromegaly Is Not Associated with Objective Acromegalic Changes but Depends on Depressive Symptoms
C. Dimopoulou (2016)
10.1016/j.jocn.2011.01.027
Executive functions recover earlier than episodic memory after microsurgical transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumors in adult patients – a longitudinal study
T. Psaras (2011)
10.1097/00004583-198907000-00023
Mania in a girl with Cushing's disease.
R. Frank (1989)
10.1023/B:PITU.0000004798.27230.ed
Quality of Life in Patients with a Pituitary Adenoma
M. D. Johnson (2004)
10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70060-8
Role of gamma knife therapy in the management of pituitary tumors.
I. Jackson (1999)
Quality of life in children and adolescents 1year after cure of Cushing syndrome: a prospective study
MF Keil (2009)
10.1007/s00701-012-1473-3
Quality of life in nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma patients before and after surgical treatment
Eriko Tanemura (2012)
Octreotide Treatment of Acromegaly
S. Ezzat (2020)
10.3275/7333
Predictive factors for neurocognitive function and Quality of Life after surgical treatment for Cushing’s disease and acromegaly
T. Psaras (2011)
10.1007/s11102-013-0519-8
Patient-focussed outcomes in acromegaly
M. Guitelman (2013)
10.1530/EJE-12-0325
Psychometric performance of the CushingQoL questionnaire in conditions of real clinical practice.
Alicia Santos (2012)
10.1530/EJE.0.1460067
Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in hypopituitary patients previously treated for acromegaly or Cushing's disease.
U. Feldt-Rasmussen (2002)
10.17219/acem/38156
The quality of life and psychological, social and cognitive functioning of patients with acromegaly.
D. Szcześniak (2015)
10.1007/s11102-012-0424-6
Severe growth hormone deficiency is rare in surgically-cured acromegalics
S. Fujio (2012)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.1995.tb02614.x
Psychopathology in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome: ‘atypical’ or melancholic features
Lorah D. Dorn (1995)
10.1530/EJE.1.02214
Validity and clinical applicability of the acromegaly quality of life questionnaire, AcroQoL: a 6-month prospective study.
S. Webb (2006)
10.1530/EJE-15-0640
Using subscales when scoring the Cushing's quality of life questionnaire.
J. Tiemensma (2016)
10.1046/j.1365-2265.1998.00543.x
Cognitive dysfunction in patients with pituitary tumour who have been treated with transfrontal or transsphenoidal surgery or medication
Peace (1998)
10.1097/00006842-200111000-00018
Elevated Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Disease Are Associated With Cognitive Decrements
M. Starkman (2001)
10.1055/S-2007-1014405
Psychiatric phenomenology in Cushing's disease.
P. T. Loosen (1992)
10.1111/j.1600-0404.1993.tb04075.x
Memory impairment in Cushing's disease
M. Mauri (1993)
10.1097/TEN.0B013E3181B5A738
Effect of Corrective Surgery on Neurocognitive Functions in Endogenous Cushing Syndrome
R. Nehra (2009)
Cushing’s disease and melancholia. Stress
RM Condren (2001)
10.1017/S1355617700633155
Cognitive decline in patients with Cushing's syndrome.
H. Forget (2000)
10.1159/000095532
Quality of Life in Acromegaly
S. Webb (2006)
10.1016/0006-3223(92)90079-F
Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome
M. Starkman (1992)
10.1097/00005053-199606000-00006
Sociotropy, Autonomy, Stress, and Depression in Gushing Syndrome
E. Burgess (1996)
Measurements of quality of life in patients with growth hormone deficiency.
S. Webb (2008)
10.1080/01688639708403831
Cognitive dysfunction in patients treated for pituitary tumours.
K. Peace (1997)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03947.x
Cognitive functioning in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and the effects of pituitary radiotherapy
P. Brummelman (2011)
10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.05.001
Altered neural processing of emotional faces in remitted Cushing's disease
J. M. Bas-Hoogendam (2015)
10.1176/ajp.142.8.911
Diagnostic categorization of psychiatric disturbance in Cushing's syndrome.
R. Haskett (1985)
10.1097/00005792-199409000-00001
Acromegaly: Clinical and Biochemical Features in 500 Patients
S. Ezzat (1994)
10.1017/S0790966700016402
Psychiatric aspects of acromegaly – a review and case report
K. Sivakumar (1991)
10.1046/j.1365-2265.1997.1400957.x
An account of the quality of life of patients after treatment for non‐functioning pituitary tumours
R. Page (1997)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.QJMED.A067587
Psychiatric manifestations of Cushing's syndrome: response to lowering of plasma cortisol.
W. Jeffcoate (1979)
10.1046/j.1365-2265.1997.2701073.x
Psychological distress in patients with hyperprolactinaemia
Saffron Reavley (1997)
10.1097/00005053-195101000-00050
The psychopathology of acromegaly.
M. Bleuler (1951)
10.1016/0002-9343(84)90312-7
Occult Cushing's disease presenting with acute psychosis.
M. Saad (1984)
10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.11.020
Long-term cognitive effects of glucocorticoid excess in Cushing’s syndrome
H. Forget (2016)
10.1210/jc.2010-0394
Evidence of cognitive and neurophysiological impairment in patients with untreated naive acromegaly.
J. Leon-Carrion (2010)
10.1007/s11102-013-0484-2
Disease-specific quality of life evaluation and its determinants in Cushing’s syndrome: what have we learnt?
X. Badía (2013)
10.1007/s12020-014-0166-5
Psychological profile and quality of life in patients with acromegaly in Greece. Is there any difference with other chronic diseases?
P. Anagnostis (2014)
10.1007/s11102-015-0645-6
Comorbidities in Cushing’s disease
S. Sharma (2015)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar