Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Mechanisms Of Bacterial Resistance To Chromium Compounds

M. I. Ramírez-Díaz, C. Díaz-Pérez, Eréndira Vargas, Héctor Riveros-Rosas, Jesús Campos-García, C. Cervantes
Published 2007 · Chemistry, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Chromium is a non-essential and well-known toxic metal for microorganisms and plants. The widespread industrial use of this heavy metal has caused it to be considered as a serious environmental pollutant. Chromium exists in nature as two main species, the trivalent form, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous, and the hexavalent form, Cr(VI), considered a more toxic species. At the intracellular level, however, Cr(III) seems to be responsible for most toxic effects of chromium. Cr(VI) is usually present as the oxyanion chromate. Inhibition of sulfate membrane transport and oxidative damage to biomolecules are associated with the toxic effects of chromate in bacteria. Several bacterial mechanisms of resistance to chromate have been reported. The best characterized mechanisms comprise efflux of chromate ions from the cell cytoplasm and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chromate efflux by the ChrA transporter has been established in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Cupriavidusmetallidurans (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus) and consists of an energy-dependent process driven by the membrane potential. The CHR protein family, which includes putative ChrA orthologs, currently contains about 135 sequences from all three domains of life. Chromate reduction is carried out by chromate reductases from diverse bacterial species generating Cr(III) that may be detoxified by other mechanisms. Most characterized enzymes belong to the widespread NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein family of reductases. Several examples of bacterial systems protecting from the oxidative stress caused by chromate have been described. Other mechanisms of bacterial resistance to chromate involve the expression of components of the machinery for repair of DNA damage, and systems related to the homeostasis of iron and sulfur.
This paper references
10.1128/AEM.66.5.1788-1795.2000
Purification to Homogeneity and Characterization of a Novel Pseudomonas putida Chromate Reductase
C. H. Park (2000)
10.1074/jbc.M008083200
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Gene Coding for Azoreductase from Bacillus sp. OY1-2 Isolated from Soil*
Y. Suzuki (2001)
10.1128/AEM.69.8.4390-4395.2003
Vibrio harveyi Nitroreductase Is Also a Chromate Reductase
Young Hak Kwak (2003)
Characterization of a thermo
GM (2006)
10.1099/MIC.0.27945-0
Oxidative protein damage causes chromium toxicity in yeast.
Edward R Sumner (2005)
10.1289/EHP.919253
Reaction of chromium(VI) with glutathione or with hydrogen peroxide: identification of reactive intermediates and their role in chromium(VI)-induced DNA damage.
J. Aiyar (1991)
10.1128/JB.172.3.1670-1672.1990
Membrane-associated chromate reductase activity from Enterobacter cloacae.
P. C. Wang (1990)
10.1002/MC.2940090304
Dna polymerase arrest by adducted trivalent chromium
Laura C. Bridgewater (1994)
10.1111/J.1574-6976.2001.TB00581.X
Interactions of chromium with microorganisms and plants.
C. Cervantes (2001)
10.1111/J.1574-6968.2002.TB11274.X
Efflux of chromate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells expressing the ChrA protein.
Betzabe E Pimentel (2002)
Global molecular and morpholog
DK Thompson (2006)
10.1046/J.1432-1033.2003.03957.X
Isolation and biochemical characterization of two soluble iron(III) reductases from Paracoccus denitrificans.
J. Mazoch (2004)
10.1007/BF03403273
How microbes mobilize metals in ores: A review of current understandings and proposals for further research
H. Ehrlich (2002)
10.1093/BIB/5.2.150
MEGA3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment
S. Kumar (2004)
10.1128/AEM.56.7.2268-2270.1990
Chromium reduction in Pseudomonas putida.
Y. Ishibashi (1990)
10.1093/CARCIN/21.4.533
Threshold mechanisms and site specificity in chromium(VI) carcinogenesis
S. Flora (2000)
Chromium (IV)-mediated fenton-like reaction causes DNA damage: implication to genotoxicity of chromate.
H. Luo (1996)
10.1007/BF01701997
Environmental contamination of chromium in agricultural and animal products near a chromate industry
D. Imam Khasim (1989)
10.1074/mcp.M500394-MCP200
Molecular Dynamics of the Shewanella oneidensis Response to Chromate Stress*S
S. Brown (2006)
10.2172/10147081
Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research
R. G. Riley (1992)
10.1021/TX00042A013
In vivo free radical generation by chromium(VI): an electron spin resonance spin-trapping investigation.
M. Kadiiska (1994)
10.1385/BTER:99:1-3:001
Recent developments in the biochemistry of chromium(III)
J. Vincent (2007)
Chromium in the natural and human environments
J. Nriagu (1988)
10.5860/choice.32-6244
Biological Degradation and Bioremediation of Toxic Chemicals
G. R. Chaudhry (1995)
10.1128/JB.177.8.2143-2150.1995
Genes encoded on a cyanobacterial plasmid are transcriptionally regulated by sulfur availability and CysR.
M. Nicholson (1995)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MI.47.100193.001403
Dissimilatory metal reduction.
D. Lovley (1993)
10.1016/J.ENVINT.2005.02.003
Chromium toxicity in plants.
A. Shanker (2005)
10.1093/CARCIN/13.12.2341
Analysis of the binding sites of chromium to DNA and protein in vitro and in intact cells.
K. Salnikow (1992)
10.1007/BF02784585
Comaprative binding study of aluminum and chromium to human transferrin
A. A. Moshtaghie (2007)
10.1023/A:1022504826342
Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation
A. Zayed (2004)
10.1128/JB.173.9.2751-2760.1991
Isolation and characterization of a sulfur-regulated gene encoding a periplasmically localized protein with sequence similarity to rhodanese.
D. E. Laudenbach (1991)
10.1093/CARCIN/12.6.1143
The reduction of chromate is a prerequisite of chromium binding to cell nuclei.
A. Kortenkamp (1991)
Chromium toxicity to algae and bacteria
P. Wong (1988)
10.1128/AEM.70.2.873-882.2004
Chromate-Reducing Properties of Soluble Flavoproteins from Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli
D. Ackerley (2004)
10.1186/1471-2105-4-41
The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes
R. Tatusov (2003)
10.1046/J.1432-1033.2003.03704.X
Diversity, taxonomy and evolution of medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily.
H. Riveros-Rosas (2003)
Nucleotide sequence and expression of a plasmid-encoded chromate resistance determinant from Alcaligenes eutrophus.
A. Nies (1990)
10.1128/AEM.00813-06
Global Molecular and Morphological Effects of 24-Hour Chromium(VI) Exposure on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
K. Chourey (2006)
10.1111/J.1574-6968.1998.TB12998.X
Sulfate-reducing bacterium grows with Cr(VI), U(VI), Mn(IV), and Fe(III) as electron acceptors
B. Tebo (1998)
10.1002/JAT.2550130314
The toxicology of chromium with respect to its chemical speciation: A review
S. Katz (1993)
10.1021/TX010096Q
Genotoxicity of trivalent chromium in bacterial cells. Possible effects on DNA topology.
A. Plaper (2002)
10.1021/BI960147W
Formation of the amino acid-DNA complexes by hexavalent and trivalent chromium in vitro: importance of trivalent chromium and the phosphate group.
A. Zhitkovich (1996)
10.1007/BF00422281
Chromate resistance and reduction in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LB300
L. Bopp (2004)
10.1016/S0378-1097(04)00068-0
Essential residues in the chromate transporter ChrA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
S. Aguilera (2004)
10.1016/J.MRFMMM.2005.05.018
Involvement of DNA helicases in chromate resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.
Alma T Miranda (2005)
10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03499.x
Tracing pathways of transport protein evolution
M. Saier (2003)
10.1016/0003-9861(90)90589-Q
On the hydroxyl radical formation in the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and biologically generated chromium(V) species.
X. Shi (1990)
10.1107/S0907444906001600
Structure determination of an FMN reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 using sulfur anomalous signal.
R. Agarwal (2006)
Bacterial detoxification of toxic chromate
H Ohtake (1994)
Threshold mechanisms and site specificity in chromium(VI) carcinogenesis.
S. De Flora (2000)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MICRO.50.1.753
Bacterial heavy metal resistance: new surprises.
S. Silver (1996)
10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0365
New enzyme for reductive cancer chemotherapy, YieF, and its improvement by directed evolution
Y. Barak (2006)
10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01625-7
Cloning and heterologous expression of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase of Arabidopsis thaliana, a functional homologue of animal DT‐diaphorase
F. Sparla (1999)
10.1074/JBC.M405404200
Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of Yeast YLR011wp, an Enzyme with NAD(P)H-FMN and Ferric Iron Reductase Activities*
D. Liger (2004)
10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00438-2
A bacterial flavin reductase system reduces chromate to a soluble chromium(III)-NAD(+) complex.
G. Puzon (2002)
Cloning , Nucleotide Sequence , and Expression of the Chromate Resistance Determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Plasmid pUM 5 O 5
C. Cervantes (2005)
10.1128/jb.180.21.5799-5802.1998
CHR, a novel family of prokaryotic proton motive force-driven transporters probably containing chromate/sulfate antiporters.
D. Nies (1998)
10.1128/JB.188.9.3371-3381.2006
Effect of chromate stress on Escherichia coli K-12.
D. Ackerley (2006)
10.1007/978-3-540-69771-8
Molecular microbiology of heavy metals
D. Nies (2007)
10.1111/J.1574-6968.2006.00386.X
Membrane topology of the chromate transporter ChrA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Rafael Jiménez-Mejía (2006)
10.1016/S0048-9697(97)05446-6
Personal exposure to elements in Mexico City air.
H. Riveros-Rosas (1997)
Involvement of DNA
AT Miranda (2005)
10.1016/B978-0-444-80441-9.50007-9
CHAPTER 3 – Chromium in air, soil and natural waters
E. E. Cary (1982)
Mechanism of DNA cleavage induced by sodium chromate(VI) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.
S. Kawanishi (1986)
10.1021/BI052478R
Characterization of a thermostable NADPH:FMN oxidoreductase from the mesophilic bacterium Bacillus subtilis.
S. Deller (2006)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.JBCHEM.A124776
Mechanism of chromium(VI) toxicity in Escherichia coli: is hydrogen peroxide essential in Cr(VI) toxicity?
M. Itoh (1995)
10.1007/7171_2006_087
Reduction and Efflux of Chromate by Bacteria
C. Cervantes (2007)
Reduction and efflux
C Cervantes (2007)
10.3109/10242429008992094
Bacterial Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium: Kinetic Aspects of Chromate Reduction by Enterobacter cloacae HO1
H. Ohtake (1990)
10.1016/s0269-7491(96)90019-6
Biological degradation and bioremediation of toxic chemicals
H. Painter (1996)
10.1007/BF02987208
Biological and environmental aspects of chromium
S. Langård (2008)
10.1128/JB.181.23.7398-7400.1999
Chromate efflux by means of the ChrA chromate resistance protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
A. H. Álvarez (1999)
10.1002/EM.2860080408
Induction of SOS genes of Escherichia coli by chromium compounds.
M. Llagostera (1986)
10.1289/EHP.919263
Effects of vitamins on chromium(VI)-induced damage.
M. Sugiyama (1991)
10.1007/s00203-004-0665-5
New genes involved in chromate resistance in Ralstonia metallidurans strain CH34
S. Juhnke (2004)
10.1007/s00438-002-0785-z
The 79,370-bp conjugative plasmid pB4 consists of an IncP-1β backbone loaded with a chromate resistance transposon, the strA-strB streptomycin resistance gene pair, the oxacillinase gene blaNPS-1, and a tripartite antibiotic efflux system of the resistance-nodulation-division family
A. Tauch (2003)
10.1006/rtph.1997.1136
Chromium as an essential nutrient for humans.
R. Anderson (1997)
10.1093/nar/gkj149
Pfam: clans, web tools and services
R. Finn (2006)
10.1016/B978-0-444-80441-9.50012-2
Mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of chromium compounds
A. G. Levis (1982)
10.1128/JB.172.1.287-291.1990
Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505.
C. Cervantes (1990)
10.1002/CHIN.198720020
Chromium(III) Hydrolysis Constants and Solubility of Chromium(III) Hydroxide.
D. Rai (1987)
10.1128/MMBR.62.1.1-34.1998
Major Facilitator Superfamily
S. Pao (1998)
10.1074/jbc.M501654200
ChrR, a Soluble Quinone Reductase of Pseudomonas putida That Defends against H2O2*
C. Gonzalez (2005)
10.1128/JB.187.24.8437-8449.2005
Whole-genome transcriptional analysis of heavy metal stresses in Caulobacter crescentus.
P. Hu (2005)



This paper is referenced by
10.3892/etm.2017.4775
Reducing capacity and enzyme activity of chromate reductase in a ChrT-engineered strain.
Simin Zhou (2017)
10.1007/s10646-015-1583-9
Genome sequencing reveals mechanisms for heavy metal resistance and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Delftia lacustris strain LZ-C
Wenyang Wu (2015)
10.1016/j.jes.2014.07.017
Genomic analyses of metal resistance genes in three plant growth promoting bacteria of legume plants in Northwest mine tailings, China.
Pin Xie (2015)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.11.004
Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the freshwater green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
I. Aharchaou (2017)
10.1002/AWS2.1151
Resilient biological hexavalent chromium removal with a two‐stage, fixed‐bed biotreatment system
G. Upadhyaya (2019)
10.1007/s13213-015-1125-y
Leucobacter chromiireducens CRB2, a new strain with high Cr(VI) reduction potential isolated from tannery-contaminated soil (Fez, Morocco)
N. Tahri Joutey (2015)
10.3390/life2030229
Survival of the Fittest: Overcoming Oxidative Stress at the Extremes of Acid, Heat and Metal
Y. Maezato (2012)
10.1007/s11274-011-0883-3
The ChrA homologue from a sulfur-regulated gene cluster in cyanobacterial plasmid pANL confers chromate resistance
Esther Aguilar-Barajas (2012)
10.1007/s12223-020-00771-y
Reduction of chromium-VI by chromium-resistant Escherichia coli FACU: a prospective bacterium for bioremediation
M. Mohamed (2020)
10.1201/B14776-3
— Biology of Actinomycetes in the Rhizosphere of Nitrogen-Fixing Plants
M. Amoroso (2013)
10.1007/978-94-007-1914-9_13
Chromium Pollution and Bioremediation: An Overview
N. Das (2011)
10.3390/s17112461
A Green Microbial Fuel Cell-Based Biosensor for In Situ Chromium (VI) Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater
Li-Chun Wu (2017)
10.1007/978-981-15-1390-9
Emerging Eco-friendly Green Technologies for Wastewater Treatment
N. Arora (2020)
10.1007/s11270-016-2872-5
A Comparison of Microbial Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation for Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Wastewater
F. Carlos (2016)
10.1007/s11270-016-3174-7
Influence of Metal-Resistant Rhizobacteria on the Growth of Helianthus annuus L. in Cr(VI)-Contaminated Soil
A. Bahadur (2016)
10.3390/molecules23020406
Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium and Detection of Chromate Reductase (ChrR) in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
R. Baldiris (2018)
10.1038/s41598-019-43478-y
Dynamics of archaeal community in soil with application of composted tannery sludge
Ana Roberta Lima Miranda (2019)
10.5772/56365
Microbial Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium as a Mechanism of Detoxification and Possible Bioremediation Applications
S. Focardi (2013)
Simulation of in situ bioremediation of CR(VI) in groundwater aquifer environments using a microbial culture barrier
P. Molokwane (2010)
10.1371/journal.pone.0077987
Identification and Characterization of the Transcriptional Regulator ChrB in the Chromate Resistance Determinant of Ochrobactrum tritici 5bvl1
R. Branco (2013)
10.3390/agronomy10050719
Dolomite and Compost Amendments Enhance Cu Phytostabilization and Increase Microbiota of the Leachates from a Cu-Contaminated Soil
L. Giagnoni (2020)
Investigation of the electrochemical activity of chromium tolerant mutants of Geobacter metallireducens
G. Pastorella (2014)
Evaluation of the solubilization ability of two strains of Bacillus megaterium for heavy metals from residual phosphogypsum
Ioana Adriana (2011)
10.1080/15320383.2014.931922
Genomic Analysis and Comparative Hexavalent Chromium Reduction Potential of Predominant Bacillus species Isolated from Chromite Mine Soil
S. Das (2015)
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.088
Sulfate and chromate increased each other's uptake and translocation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.
L. M. de Oliveira (2016)
10.1007/s10534-010-9338-9
Different physiological responses to chromate and dichromate in the chromium resistant and reducing strain Ochrobactrum tritici 5bvl1
R. Francisco (2010)
10.12691/jaem-6-3-2
Genetic Characterization of Pseudomonas stutzeri Strain M15-10-3, the Highly Efficient Cr Accumulator Isolated from Leather Tanning Industrial Wastewater
Alawiah M. Alhebshi (2018)
10.1007/s11356-020-08903-0
Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals (THMs) contaminated sites: concepts, applications and challenges
Zeeshanur Rahman (2020)
10.1007/s00203-017-1444-4
Is Cr(III) toxic to bacteria: toxicity studies using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as model organism
A. Fathima (2017)
10.15406/jbmoa.2016.02.00045
Phytoremediation Enhanced with Concurrent microbial Plant Growth Promotion and Hexavalent Chromium Bioreduction
Vineet Kumar (2016)
The mechanism of chromate reduction by Thermus scotoductus SA-01
D. Opperman (2008)
10.1039/c1mt00059d
Chromate toxicity and the role of sulfur.
Sara L. Holland (2011)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar