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Synthesis, Characterization, And Cytotoxicity Of Glutathione-PEG-iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles

P. Haddad, M. C. Santos, Carolina Aparecida Guzzi Cassago, J. S. Bernardes, M. B. Jesus, A. B. Seabra
Published 2016 · Materials Science

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Recently, increasing interest is spent on the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, followed by their characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity towards tumorigenic cell lines. In this work, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized by the polyol method and coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione (GSH), leading to the formation of PEG-Fe3O4 and GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by state-of-the-art techniques: dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic measurements. PEG-Fe3O4 and GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles have crystallite sizes of 10 and 5 nm, respectively, indicating compression in crystalline lattice upon addition of GSH on the nanoparticle surface. Both nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and AFM images revealed the regular spherical shape of the nanomaterials and the absence of particle aggregation. The average hydrodynamic sizes of PEG-Fe3O4 and GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were 69 ± 37 and 124 nm ± 75 nm, respectively. The cytotoxicity of both nanoparticles was screened towards human prostatic carcinoma cells (PC-3). The results demonstrated a decrease in PC-3 viability upon treatment with PEG-Fe3O4 or GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the cytotoxicity was not time-dependent. Due to the superparamagnetic behavior of PEG-Fe3O4 or GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles, upon the application of an external magnetic field, those nanoparticles can be guided to the target site yielding local toxic effects to tumor cells with minimal side effects to normal tissues, highlighting the promising uses of iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedical applications.
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