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UPLC-UV Method For The Quantification Of Free Amino Acids, Bioactive Amines, And Ammonia In Fresh, Cooked, And Canned Mushrooms

G. C. L. Reis, L. R. Guidi, C. Fernandes, H. Godoy, M. Gloria
Published 2020 · Chemistry

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Mushrooms are valued due to health-promoting properties and small environmental footprint. The simultaneous determination of free amino acids (17), amines (10), and ammonia in fresh, cooked, and canned Agaricus bisporus was investigated. An AQC-derivatization method was developed and validated. Norvaline was an adequate internal standard. The method was green, fast, and fit for the purpose (quantification limits, 0.14–1.92 mg/100 g; recoveries, 80–110%; repeatability, < 10%; reproducibility, < 15%). Fifteen amino acids were detected in fresh mushroom: alanine and glutamic acid were prevalent (~ 20%) followed by proline. Spermidine was the only amine detected (6.4–8.5 mg/100 g). Ammonia was present at low levels (2.8–5.5 mg/100 g). High amounts of these amino acids and spermidine warrant important health-promoting properties. The levels of amino acids, amines, and ammonia varied among lots from the same source, suggesting the influence of production conditions. During thermal processing, changes were observed: cooking affected the least (losses mainly of glutamic acid, arginine, glycine, serine, threonine, proline, and alanine, ~ 50%). Spermidine and ammonia were not affected. During canning, the losses were higher (~ 70%) for glutamic acid, serine, valine, proline, arginine, glycine, and aspartic acid. There were losses of ammonia (39%) and spermidine (24%). A two principal component model explained 97.8% of the variance and it was able to separate fresh from processed mushroom. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the potential of using amines and amino acids to separate fresh from processed mushroom.
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