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New Chitin, Chitosan, And O-carboxymethyl Chitosan Sources From Resting Eggs Of Daphnia Longispina (Crustacea); With Physicochemical Characterization, And Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activities

M. Kaya, Y. Cakmak, T. Baran, M. Asan-Ozusaglam, Ayfer Menteş, Kabil Ozcan Tozak
Published 2014 · Chemistry

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The paper describes the isolation and characterization of chitin and chitosan from Daphnia longispina resting eggs harvested from a reservoir. Resting eggs are fertilized eggs that are encased in chitinous shells called ‘ephippia’ and which ensure the survival of the Daphnia population in adverse conditions. The chitin-content of D. longispina resting eggs was found to be 23 ∼ 25% and the chitosan (having a 70 ∼ 75% deacetylation degree) yield of the chitin was 76 ∼ 77%. This high chitin-content indicates that D. longispina resting eggs can be exploited as a chitin source. The structure and thermal properties of chitin, extracted from D. longispina resting eggs, were characterized by employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of the chitin was found to be very low (48%). Physicochemicallycharacterized chitosan and the produced O-carboxymethyl chitosan were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. It has been observed that chitosan displays antimicrobial activity against all pathogenic bacteria, whereas O-carboxymethyl chitosan only exhibits inhibition activity against L. garvieae, L. Monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Y. enterocolitica NCTC 11175 and S. aureus ATCC 25923. In a free radical scavenging activity assay, the IC50 values of chitosan, O-carboxymethyl chitosan and butylated hydroxytoluene were found to be 23.01, 56.43 and 0.05, respectively. The ferric-reducing power of O-carboxymethyl chitosan (EC50 = 8.30) indicated higher activity than chitosan (EC50 = 10.12).
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