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Genetic And Genomic Resources, And Breeding For Accelerating Improvement Of Small Millets: Current Status And Future Interventions

M. Vetriventhan, Vânia Cristina Rennó Azevedo, Hari Deo Upadhyaya, A. Nirmalakumari, Joanna Kane-Potaka, Seetha Anitha, Stanislaus Antony Ceasar, Mehanathan Muthamilarasan, B. Venkatesh Bhat, Krishna Hariprasanna, Amasiddha Bellundagi, Deepika Cheruku, C. Backiyalakshmi, Dipak K. Santra, Chockalingam Vanniarajan, Vilas A. Tonapi
Published 2020 ·
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Current agricultural and food systems encourage research and development on major crops, neglecting regionally important minor crops. Small millets include a group of small- seeded cereal crops of the grass family Poaceae . This includes finger millet, foxtail millet, proso millet, barnyard millet, kodo millet, little millet, teff, fonio, job’s tears, guinea millet, and browntop millet. Small millets are an excellent choice to supplement major staple foods for crop and dietary diversity because of their diverse adaptation on marginal lands, less water requirement, lesser susceptibility to stresses, and nutritional superiority compared to major cereal staples. Growing interest among consumers about healthy diets together with climate-resilient features of small millets underline the necessity of directing more research and development towards these crops. Except for finger millet and foxtail millet, and to some extent proso millet and teff, other small millets have received minimal research attention in terms of development of genetic and genomic resources and breeding for yield enhancement. Considerable breeding efforts were made in finger millet and foxtail millet in India and China, respectively, proso millet in the United States of America, and teff in Ethiopia. So far, five genomes, namely foxtail millet, finger millet, proso millet, teff, and Japanese barnyard millet, have been sequenced, and genome of foxtail millet is the smallest (423-510 Mb) while the largest one is finger millet (1.5 Gb). Recent advances in phenotyping and genomics technologies, together with available germplasm diversity, could be utilized in small millets improvement. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the importance of small millets, the global status of their germplasm, diversity, promising germplasm resources, and breeding approaches (conventional and genomic approaches) to accelerate climate-resilient and nutrient-dense small millets for sustainable agriculture, environment, and healthy food systems.
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