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Extension To Planck's Equation For Predicting Freezing Times Of Foodstuffs Of Simple Shapes
Published 1984 · Physics
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Abstract Planck's equation for predicting freezing times ignores sensible heat and the gradual character of the phase-change process in foodstuffs. By making certain analytical approximations to take these effects into account, a simple freezing-time prediction method is obtained that uses no empirical factor, chart or advanced algebra. The freezing process is divided into cooling and phase-change periods, the latter being calculated with Planck's equation, the former with extensions to Newton's law of cooling. The gradual character of the phase-change process is taken into account by the use of a ‘mean freezing temperature’, while the thermophysical properties of the material are approximated by straight-line segments. The method agrees with published data as well as or better than any previous procedure, including finite-difference computations.