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Characterization Techniques For Graphene

C. V. Kumar, A. Pattammattel
Published 2017 · Materials Science

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Techniques for thorough characterization of graphene by spectroscopic and microscopic methods are examined in depth in this chapter. The focus of this chapter is how to distinguish graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, which are frequently (inappropriately) termed “graphene.” The second goal of these characterizations is to analyze the size, number of layers, and extent of defects. The spectroscopic methods are reviewed include absorption, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, and infrared spectroscopy. Among these Raman spectroscopy stands out, and is recognized as a “fingerprint technique” to characterize graphene. The capabilities of these methods to examine graphene suspended in a liquid or directly in the solid state are considered, as this is crucial for biological applications. The possible errors with these methods due to drying, aggregation, and interference from exfoliating or stabilizing agents and suggestions to minimize these errors are examined. The microscopic techniques, cannot directly distinguish graphene from its chemically oxidized counterparts, however, thickness, lateral size, and basal plane modifications can be obtained. Combining all these techniques, the nature of graphene and its composites are more fully analyzed at the atomic level, which enables designing and predicting novel engineered graphene materials.
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