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Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Of Euphorbia Millii Hyperhydric Shoots

Y. H. Dewir, D. Chakrabarty, M. Ali, E. Hahn, K. Paek
Published 2006 · Chemistry

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A large number of micropropagated Euphorbia millii shoots from temporary immersion bioreactor showed thick broad leaves that were translucent, wrinkled and/or curled and brittle, symptoms of hyperhydricity. The environment inside bioreactor normally used in plant micropropagation is characterised by high relative humidity, poor gaseous exchange between the internal atmosphere of the bioreactor and its surrounding environment, and the accumulation of ethylene, conditions that may induce physiological disorders. A comparison of hyperhydric shoots (HS) with normal plants shows marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in HS plants. MDA, a decomposition product of polyunsaturated fatty acids hydroperoxides, has been utilized very often as a suitable biomarker for lipid peroxidation, which is an effect of oxidative damage. This hypothesis is also confirmed by the higher lipoxygenase (LOX) activity in HS plants. The potential role of antioxidant enzymes in protecting hyperhydric shoots from oxidative injury was examined by analyzing enzyme activities and isozyme profiles of hyperhydric and non-hyperhydric leaves of E. millii. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly higher in hyperhydric tissue as compared to non-hyperhydric normal leaf tissue. After native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis, seven SOD isoenzymes were detected and the increase in SOD activity observed in hyperhydric tissue seemed to be mainly due to Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) was proportionally increased in HS tissue compared to normal leaves indicating a crucial role in eliminating toxic H2O2 from plant cells. The depletion of GSH and total glutathione in spite of higher GR activities observed in HS tissue indicates that mechanism of antioxidant defense was by enhanced oxidation of GSH to GSSG by DHAR yielding ascorbate (AA). The antioxidant metabolism has been shown to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in hyperhydric stress and the up regulation of these enzymes would help to reduce the build up of ROS.
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