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Water Deficit Effects On Caraway (Carum Carvi L.) Growth, Essential Oil And Fatty Acid Composition

Bochra Laribi, Iness Bettaieb, Karima Kouki, Ali Sahli, Abdelaziz Mougou, Brahim Marzouk
Published 2009 · Chemistry

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Abstract The Mediterranean region suffers of drought which affects plant behaviour regarding biochemical responses. Accordingly, the effects of water deficit on growth, essential oil and fatty acid composition of caraway ( Carum carvi L.) seeds were investigated. Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control, moderate water deficit and severe water deficit. Plant growth (height, fresh and dry matter weight) was significantly reduced by severe water deficit. This last caused also important reductions of the seed yield and yield components. Drought decreased significantly seed total fatty acid contents and particularly the petroselinic ones whose proportions decreased significantly by 12.17 and 18.47%, in comparison with the control, under moderate water deficit and severe water deficit, respectively. Besides, moderate water deficit increased the essential oil yield (expressed as g/100 g on the basis of dry matter weight). The main essential oil constituents were carvone and limonene which showed an increasing of their contents under water deficit levels. Thus, water deficit induced a significant reduction in growth parameters and fatty acid content, and an increase in the essential oil compounds. These bioactive compounds have been required in many industrial products.
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