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Inelastic Deformation And Energy Dissipation In Ceramics: A Mechanism-based Constitutive Model

V. Deshpande, A. Evans
Published 2008 · Materials Science

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A mechanism-based constitutive model is presented for the inelastic deformation and fracture of ceramics. The model comprises four essential features: (i) micro-crack extension rates based on stress-intensity calculations and a crack growth law, (ii) the effect of the crack density on the stiffness, inclusive of crack closure, (iii) plasticity at high confining pressures, and (iv) initial flaws that scale with the grain size. Predictions of stress/strain responses for a range of stress states demonstrate that the model captures the transition from deformation by micro-cracking at low triaxiality to plastic slip at high triaxialities. Moreover, natural outcomes of the model include dilation (or bulking) upon micro-cracking, as well as the increase in the shear strength of the damaged ceramic with increasing triaxiality. Cavity expansion calculations are used to extract some key physics relevant to penetration. Three domains have been identified: (i) quasi-static, where the ceramic fails due to the outward propagation of a compression damage front, (ii) intermediate velocity, where an outward propagating compression damage front is accompanied by an inward propagating tensile (or spallation) front caused by the reflection of the elastic wave from the outer surface and (iii) high velocity, wherein plastic deformation initiates at the inner surface of the shell followed by spalling within a tensile damage front when the elastic wave reflects from the outer surface. Consistent with experimental observations, the cavity pressure is sensitive to the grain size under quasi-static conditions but relatively insensitive under dynamic loadings.
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