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In Vivo Studies Of Polypyrrole/peptide Coated Neural Probes.
X. Cui, J. Wiler, Marta Dzaman, R. Altschuler, D. Martin
Published 2003 · Materials Science, Medicine
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Neural probes are micromachined multichannel electrode arrays that facilitate the functional stimulation and recording of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. For long-term implantations, surface modification is necessary for maintaining the stable connection between electrodes and neurons. The conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and synthetic peptide DCDPGYIGSR were co-deposited on the electrode surface by electrochemical polymerization. The stability of PPy/DCDPGYIGSR coatings was tested in soaking experiments. It was found that the peptide was entrapped in the PPy film and did not diffuse away within 7 weeks of soaking in DI water. Coated probes were implanted in guinea pig brain for periods of 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Recording tests were performed and the impedance was monitored. The explanted probes and tissue were examined by immunocytochemical studies. Significantly more neurofilament positive staining was found on the coated electrode which indicated that the coatings had established strong connections with the neuronal structure in vivo. Good recordings were obtained from the coated sites that had neurons attached. First week tissue sections had no significant gliosis. In week 2, a layer of non-neuronal tissue consisting of mostly meningeal fibroblasts and ECM protein including at least fibronectin was formed around the probe tracks of both coated and uncoated probes. Astrocytes started to form a loosely organized layer by the end of the third week.
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