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Paclitaxel-loaded PLGA Nanoparticles: Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization And In Vitro Anti-tumoral Activity.

Cristina Fonseca, S. Simões, R. Gaspar
Published 2002 · Medicine, Chemistry

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The main objective of this study was to develop a polymeric drug delivery system for paclitaxel, intended to be intravenously administered, capable of improving the therapeutic index of the drug and devoid of the adverse effects of Cremophor EL. To achieve this goal paclitaxel (Ptx)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Ptx-PLGA-Nps) were prepared by the interfacial deposition method. The influence of different experimental parameters on the incorporation efficiency of paclitaxel in the nanoparticles was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that the incorporation efficiency of paclitaxel in nanoparticles was mostly affected by the method of preparation of the organic phase and also by the organic phase/aqueous phase ratio. Our data indicate that the methodology of preparation allowed the formation of spherical nanometric (<200 nm), homogeneous and negatively charged particles which are suitable for intravenous administration. The release behaviour of paclitaxel from the developed Nps exhibited a biphasic pattern characterised by an initial fast release during the first 24 h, followed by a slower and continuous release. The in vitro anti-tumoral activity of Ptx-PLGA-Nps developed in this work was assessed using a human small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H69 SCLC) and compared to the in vitro anti-tumoral activity of the commercial formulation Taxol. The influence of Cremophor EL on cell viability was also investigated. Exposure of NCI-H69 cells to 25 microg/ml Taxol resulted in a steep decrease in cell viability. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of Ptx in nanoparticles strongly enhances the cytotoxic effect of the drug as compared to Taxol, this effect being more relevant for prolonged incubation times.
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