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Chitosans As Nasal Absorption Enhancers Of Peptides: Comparison Between Free Amine Chitosans And Soluble Salts.
Published 2000 · Chemistry, Medicine
A total of three free amine chitosans (CS J, CS L and CS H) and two soluble chitosan salts (CS G and CS HCl) were evaluated for their efficacy and safety as nasal absorption enhancers of peptides based on in situ nasal perfusion and subacute histological evaluation in rat. At 0.5% w/v, all chitosans were effective in enhancing the nasal absorption of [D-Arg(2)]-Kyotorphin, an enzymatically stable opioid dipeptide. The enhancing effect of the free amine chitosans increased as the pH was decreased from 6.0 to 4.0 (P<0.05). However, the pH effect was not significant for the two chitosan salts (P0.05), suggesting that their adjuvant activity may be less pH-dependent than the free amine form. CS J and CS G were subsequently selected for further studies. At only 0.02% w/v, their enhancing effect was already significant and comparable to that of 5% w/v hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD). Both chitosans at 0.1% caused minimal release of total protein and phosphorus from the rat nasal mucosa, with the values similar to that of 5% HP-beta-CD. At 0. 5% the two chitosans also stimulated smaller release of lactate dehydrogenase, an intracellular enzyme used as marker of nasal membrane damage, than 1.25% dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Morphological evaluation of the rat nasal mucosa following 2-week daily administration indicated that the two chitosans (1.0%) produced only mild to moderate irritation. In conclusion, both the free amine and the acid salt forms of chitosans are effective in enhancing the nasal absorption of [D-Arg(2)]-Kyotorphin and have potential for further studies as a safe and effective nasal absorption enhancer of peptide drugs.