Trail Making Test A And B: Normative Data Stratified By Age And Education.
Tom N. Tombaugh
Published 2004 · Psychology, Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Normative data for the Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B are presented for 911 community-dwelling individuals aged 18-89 years. Performance on the TMT decreased with increasing age and lower levels of education. Based on these results, the norms were stratified for both age (11 groups) and education (2 levels). The current norms represent a more comprehensive set of norms than previously available and will increase the ability of neuropsychologists to determine more precisely the degree to which scores on the TMT reflect impaired performance for varying ages and education.
This paper references
Manual for administration of neuropsychological test batteries for adults and children
R. M. Reitan (1959)
"Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.
Marshal F. Folstein (1975)
Screening Tests for Geriatric Depression
Thomas Brink (1982)
1959).Manual for administration of neuropsychological test batteries for adults and children
R. M. Ontario. Reitan (1959)
Normative data for the Trail Making Test. Personal communication cited in Spreen and Strauss
T. N. Tombaugh (1998)
Handbook of Normative Data for Neuropsychological Assessment.
Caren R. DeBernardo (2000)
PSYCHOMETRIC AND CLINICAL TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE HALSTEAD IMPAIRMENT INDEX IN A SAMPLE OF HEALTHY, YOUNG, NORMAL MEN
Joseph D. Matarazzo (1974)
Normative data on selected neuropsychological measures from a nonclinical sample
Robert A. Bornstein (1985)
Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia.
The influence of age on trail making test performance.
Alan D. Davies (1968)
Three tests of attention and rapid information processing: An extension
Donald T. Stuss (1988)
Recognition Memory Battery: Normative data from age
N. McIntyre (1996)
This paper is referenced by
Dual-phase [18F]florbetapir in frontotemporal dementia
Michael Asghar (2018)
Is the strong desire to void a source of diverted attention in healthy adult volunteers?
William Gibson (2019)
Long-term moderate alcohol consumption does not exacerbate age-related cognitive decline in healthy, community-dwelling older adults
Malaak Nasser Moussa (2015)
Characteristics and neuronal correlates of superior memory performance
Boris N. Konrad (2014)
The cognitive footprint of medication: A review of cognitive assessments in clinical trials.
Charlotte R Stoner (2020)
Voice Discrimination by Adults with Cochlear Implants: the Benefits of Early Implantation for Vocal-Tract Length Perception
Yael Zaltz (2017)
Ecological Assessment of Autonomy in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Dementia Patients by the Means of an Automatic Video Monitoring System
Alexandra König (2015)
The effect of IDH1 mutation on the structural connectome in malignant astrocytoma
Shelli R. Kesler (2016)
The human amygdala drives reflexive orienting towards facial features
Matthias Gamer (2013)
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Alone Does Not Cause Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction Following Open Heart Surgery
Ratna Farida Soenarto (2018)
Healthy Aging: Factors that Predict Preservation of Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults
Imari-Ashley F. Palma (2018)
Cognitive flexibility and persistent post-surgical pain: the FLEXCAPP prospective observational study.
Molly R Vila (2020)
Masakazu Imaoka (2019)
Schizophrenia patients using atypical medication perform better in visual tasks than patients using typical medication
Thiago Monteiro Paiva Fernandes (2019)
Effects of GH on cognitive function in elderly patients with adult-onset GH deficiency: a placebo-controlled 12-month study.
Mahesh Sathiavageeswaran (2007)
Novel Face-Name Paired Associate Learning and Famous Face Recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Neuropsychological and Brain Volumetric Study
Satyan Nanda (2019)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers of Synaptic Injury and Functional Connectivity in Alzheimer Disease: Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study
Rawan Tarawneh (2019)
Specific patterns of brain alterations underlie distinct clinical profiles in Huntington's disease
Clara Garcia-Gorro (2019)
Rehabilitation Trajectories and Outcomes in Individuals With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychiatric Histories: A TRACK-TBI Pilot Study
Hilary Bertisch (2019)
Cognitive Impairment and Carotid Atherosclerosis in a General Italian Midlife and Old Population
Patrizio Prati (2006)
Cognitive Functioning in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: Associations with Thyroid Hormones, N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein
Julius Burkauskas (2017)
Early Detection of Lower MMSE Scores in Elderly Based on Dual-Task Gait
Kota Aoki (2019)
Spaced Retrieval and Episodic Memory Training in Alzheimer’s Disease
Jeff A Small (2020)
Long-Term Impact of Intelligent Monitoring Technology on People with Cognitive Impairment: An Observational Study.
Ioulietta Lazarou (2019)
Executive Functioning, Visuo-Spatial and Inter-Personal Skill Preservation in Alzheimer’s and Mild Cognitive Impairment
Sara Schatz (2019)
Arginine impairs endothelial and executive function in older subjects with cardiovascular risk.
Joshua A Beckman (2018)
Age-Related Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Effects on Executive Function in Depression: A Systematic Review.
Irena P Ilieva (2018)
Cognitive and imaging markers in non-demented subjects attending a memory clinic: study design and baseline findings of the MEMENTO cohort
Carole Dufouil (2017)
Measuring attention in very old adults using the Test of Everyday Attention
Guusje van der Leeuw (2017)
Association of Arterial Stiffness and Central Pressure With Cognitive Function in Incident Hemodialysis Patients: The PACE Study
Esther Daun Kim (2017)
Long-term health outcomes after exposure to repeated concussion in elite level: rugby union players
T M McMillan (2016)
Determinants of On-Road Driving in Multiple Sclerosis.
Hannes Devos (2017)See more