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Controlled P-doping Of Pigment Layers By Cosublimation: Basic Mechanisms And Implications For Their Use In Organic Photovoltaic Cells

M. Pfeiffer, A. Beyer, B. Plönnigs, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, K. Leo, D. Schlettwein, S. Hiller, D. Woehrle
Published 2000 · Materials Science

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Abstract We present a systematic study on doping of vanadyl- and zinc-pathalocyanine by a fully fluorinated form of tetracyano-quinodimethane as an example of controlled doping of thin organic films by cosublimation of matrix and dopant. The films are characterized in situ by temperature dependent Seebeck and conductivity measurements. We observe a drastic increase of conductivity and a corresponding shift of the Fermi level towards the valence states with increasing dopant concentration. We thus conclude that doping has the potential of both reducing the series resistance and increasing the photovoltage of organic solar cells. As a first step to exploit this potential, we present two different ways of preparing diodes with rectification ratios in excess of 10 4 using doped phthalocyanines. By adding an undoped interlayer between the contact and the doped layer, we have produced diodes which work already in the strict absence of oxygen and are stable in air. To increase the efficiency of charge carrier generation in photovoltaic cells, we need to use photoactive donor–acceptor-heterojunctions. We present here first examples of pn- and pin-type heterojunctions combining p-doped and nominally undoped layers.
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