Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Insulin Mediators And The Mechanism Of Insulin Action.

G. Romero, J. Larner
Published 1993 · Biology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Publisher Summary This chapter deals primarily with the second messenger hypothesis. It provides a comprehensive view of the nature and mechanisms of action of these second messengers. Insulin has been one of the best studied mammalian proteins. After 1955, insulin became the first mammalian protein to be chemically synthesized. The molecular mechanisms underlying the multiple cellular responses to insulin have been the subject of intensive research and, since the discovery of the chemical basis of the insulin-regulated activation of glycogen synthase, the idea that insulin's effects are associated with changes in the state of phosphorylation. However, the molecular mechanisms that link tyrosine-kinase activity of the receptor with the subcellular events that follow still remain obscure. The signal-transduction pathways associated with insulin function are only partially understood. Insulin, on binding, induces autophosphorylation of the β subunit of its receptor and results in the stimulation of the tyrosine-kinase activity of the receptor toward exogenous substrates.
This paper references
10.1038/352073A0
Structure of the insulin receptor substrate IRS-1 defines a unique signal transduction protein
X. J. Sun (1991)
10.1016/S0092-8674(88)90509-0
Regulation and function of an insulin-sensitive glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol during T lymphocyte activation
G. Gaulton (1988)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)67156-x
Protein phosphorylation and protein kinase activities in BC3H-1 myocytes. Differences between the effects of insulin and phorbol esters.
D. Spach (1986)
10.1042/BJ0600556
The structure of pig and sheep insulins.
H. Brown (1955)
10.1111/J.1432-1033.1990.TB15392.X
Asymmetric distribution of the phosphatidylinositol-linked phospho-oligosaccharide that mimics insulin action in the plasma membrane.
I. Varela (1990)
10.1016/0167-4889(89)90244-9
Insulin stimulates the acute release of adipsin from 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
K. Kitagawa (1989)
10.1016/0006-3002(60)90142-6
Insulin-mediated effect on the activity of UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase of muscle.
C. Villar-Palasi (1960)
10.2337/diab.40.4.413
Molecular Defects in Diabetes Mellitus
G. Bell (1991)
10.1016/0092-8674(89)90048-2
Phospholipase C-γ is a substrate for the PDGF and EGF receptor protein-tyrosine kinases in vivo and in vitro
J. Meisenhelder (1989)
Selective priming of rate and duration of the respiratory burst of neutrophils by 1,2-diacyl and 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl diglycerides. Possible relation to effects on protein kinase C.
D. Bass (1988)
10.1073/PNAS.87.4.1476
Anti-inositolglycan antibodies selectively block some of the actions of insulin in intact BC3H1 cells.
G. Romero (1990)
10.1096/fasebj.3.5.2522071
Glycosyl‐phosphatidylinositol: a versatile anchor for cell surface proteins 1
M. Low (1989)
10.1016/0014-4827(92)90193-C
Role of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol/inositol phosphoglycan system in human fibroblast proliferation.
V. Vasta (1992)
10.2337/DIABETES.40.4.413
Lilly lecture 1990. Molecular defects in diabetes mellitus.
G. Bell (1991)
10.1016/0014-5793(87)81361-3
The insulin receptor tyrosyl kinase phosphorylates holomeric forms of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins Gi and Go
R. O'brien (1987)
10.1016/0014-5793(89)80630-1
Glucose‐induced synthesis of diacylglycerol de novo is associated with translocation (activation) of protein kinase C in rat adipocytes
T. Ishizuka (1989)
10.1146/ANNUREV.BI.56.070187.003151
G proteins: transducers of receptor-generated signals.
A. Gilman (1987)
10.1210/ENDO-120-3-967
Insulin generates an enzyme modulator from hepatic plasma membranes: regulation of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and adenylate cyclase.
A. Saltiel (1987)
10.1016/0006-291X(85)91399-3
Presence of an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase in human circulation: elevation following a glucose load and possible relation to an insulin mediator.
M. Sinha (1985)
10.1073/PNAS.86.18.6940
Evidence that pp42, a major tyrosine kinase target protein, is a mitogen-activated serine/threonine protein kinase.
A. J. Rossomando (1989)
10.1002/NEU.480220106
Short-term action of insulin on Aplysia neurons: generation of a possible novel modulator of ion channels.
E. Shapiro (1991)
10.1073/PNAS.87.3.1052
Insulin, oxytocin, and vasopressin stimulate protein kinase C activity in adipocyte plasma membranes.
J. J. Egan (1990)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)47847-7
A mutant insulin receptor with defective tyrosine kinase displays no biologic activity and does not undergo endocytosis.
D. McClain (1987)
10.1073/PNAS.83.24.9453
Insulin and growth factor effects on c-fos expression in normal and protein kinase C-deficient 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes.
D. Stumpo (1986)
10.1021/BI00489A033
Insulin activates glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis) through a phospholipid-derived mediator. Apparent involvement of Gi alpha and activation of a phospholipase C.
M. C. Vila (1990)
10.1016/0167-5699(91)90110-F
Phosphatidylinositol membrane anchors and T-cell activation.
P. Robinson (1991)
10.1016/s0021-9258(17)44843-5
A pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein mediates some aspects of insulin action in BC3H-1 murine myocytes.
L. Luttrell (1990)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)61400-0
Insulin increases membrane and cytosolic protein kinase C activity in BC3H-1 myocytes.
D. Cooper (1987)
10.1021/JA00901A052
Insulin Peptides. IX. The Synthesis of the A-Chain of Insulin and its Combination with Natural B-Chain to Generate Insulin Activity
P. Katsoyannis (1963)
10.1016/0006-291X(83)91014-8
Chemical mediator of insulin action stimulates lipid synthesis and down regulates the insulin receptors in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.
J. Caro (1983)
10.1126/SCIENCE.3917578
Insulin mediators from rat skeletal muscle have differential effects on insulin-sensitive pathways of intact adipocytes.
L. Jarett (1985)
10.1210/ENDO-123-3-1559
Insulin and a putative insulin metabolic mediator fraction from liver and muscle stimulate p33 messenger ribonucleic acid accumulation by apparently different mechanisms.
T. Sato (1988)
10.1042/BJ2700401
Insulin receptor function is inhibited by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]).
H. W. Davis (1990)
10.2337/diacare.13.3.317
Substrates for Insulin-Receptor Kinase
M. Kasuga (1990)
10.1016/s0021-9258(19)37623-9
Insulin inhibits pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of G-proteins. Evidence for a novel interaction between insulin receptors and G-proteins.
P. L. Rothenberg (1988)
10.1038/330077A0
Phospho-dephospho-control by insulin is mimicked by a phospho-oligosaccharide in adipocytes
S. Alemany (1987)
10.1073/PNAS.88.18.8016
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol/inositol phosphoglycan: a signaling system for the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor.
J. Represa (1991)
10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80780-0
Epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I stimulate the hydrolysis of the insulin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol-glycan in BC3H-1 myocytes.
R V Farese (1988)
10.1021/BI00904A009
STUDIES ON UDPG-ALPHA-GLUCAN TRANSGLUCOSYLASE. III. INTERCONVERSION OF TWO FORMS OF MUSCLE UDPG-ALPHA-GLUCAN TRANSGLUCOSYLASE BY A PHOSPHORYLATION-DEPHOSPHORYLATION REACTION SEQUENCE.
D. Friedman (1963)
10.1016/0092-8674(91)90098-J
ERKs: A family of protein-serine/threonine kinases that are activated and tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and NGF
T. Boulton (1991)
10.1073/PNAS.62.1.234
Alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. X. Regulation of the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from beef kidney mitochondria by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.
T. Linn (1969)
10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80449-2
Localisation of the insulin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol glycan at the outer surface of the cell membrane.
J. Álvarez (1988)
10.1152/AJPCELL.1990.258.1.C99
Effect of GTP gamma S on insulin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation in liver membranes and L6 muscle cells.
E. Burdett (1990)
10.1042/BJ2380083
Sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase to magnesium ions. Similar effects of spermine and insulin.
A. Thomas (1986)
10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80520-5
Rat liver insulin mediator which stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate contains galactosamine and D-chiroinositol.
J. Larner (1988)
10.1056/NEJM199008093230603
Low urinary chiro-inositol excretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
A. Kennington (1990)
10.1016/0006-291X(84)91064-7
A putative second messenger of insulin action regulates hepatic microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase.
S. Suzuki (1984)
10.1126/SCIENCE.3340856
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol moiety that anchors Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein to the membrane.
M. A. Ferguson (1988)
10.1126/SCIENCE.3282305
Phosphatidylinositol-glycan anchors of membrane proteins: potential precursors of insulin mediators.
G. Romero (1988)
10.1210/ENDO-120-4-1327
A putative mediator of insulin action which inhibits adenylate cyclase and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase: partial purification from rat liver: site and kinetic mechanism of action.
C. D. Malchoff (1987)
10.1073/PNAS.77.5.2641
Insulin-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and cell-free extracts derived from them incorporate 32P into ribosomal protein S6.
C. Smith (1980)
10.1042/BJ2640389
Role of guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins in insulin stimulation of glucose transport in rat adipocytes. Influence of bacterial toxins.
T. Ciaraldi (1989)
10.1016/0014-5793(87)80763-9
Insulin stimulates a novel GTPase activity in human platelets
D. Gawler (1987)
10.1042/BJ2440001
Biochemistry of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane protein anchors.
M. Low (1987)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)37350-2
Structural characterization of the glycoinositol phospholipid membrane anchor of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.
W. Roberts (1988)
10.1042/BJ2350145
The action of islet activating protein (pertussis toxin) on insulin's ability to inhibit adenylate cyclase and activate cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases in hepatocytes.
C. Heyworth (1986)
10.1172/JCI114462
Insulin resistance is associated with reduced fasting and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in human skeletal muscle.
Y. Kida (1990)
10.1073/PNAS.88.14.6210
Phosphatidate-dependent protein phosphorylation.
S. Bocckino (1991)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb15006.x
Insulin Mediators and the Control of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex a
J. Larner (1989)
10.1016/0006-291X(83)91031-8
Putative mediators of insulin action regulate hepatic acetyl CoA carboxylase activity.
A. Saltiel (1983)
10.1016/0014-5793(89)81565-0
Insulin stimulates the translocation of protein kinase C in rat adipocytes
T. Ishizuka (1989)
10.1210/ENDO-129-6-2951
Insulin mediators are the signal transduction system responsible for insulin's actions on human placental steroidogenesis.
J. Nestler (1991)
10.1073/PNAS.76.1.106
Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin.
D. Goeddel (1979)
10.1016/0006-291X(87)90996-X
A phospho-oligosaccharide mimics insulin action on glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase activities in isolated rat hepatocytes.
J. Álvarez (1987)
10.1126/SCIENCE.3016898
Insulin-stimulated hydrolysis of a novel glycolipid generates modulators of cAMP phosphodiesterase.
A. Saltiel (1986)
10.1089/ARD.1991.1.35
Antisense DNA downregulates protein kinase C isozymes (beta and alpha) and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in rat adipocytes.
R V Farese (1991)
10.1021/BI00409A049
Phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoproteins of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and brain.
R. K. Margolis (1988)
10.1073/PNAS.84.3.704
Replacement of lysine residue 1030 in the putative ATP-binding region of the insulin receptor abolishes insulin- and antibody-stimulated glucose uptake and receptor kinase activity.
Y. Ebina (1987)
10.1021/BI00475A001
Structure, biosynthesis, and function of glycosylphosphatidylinositols.
J. R. Thomas (1990)
10.1016/0006-291X(81)91643-0
Insulin stimulates the release from liver plasma membranes of a chemical modulator of pyruvate dehydrogenase.
A. Saltiel (1981)
10.1126/SCIENCE.505013
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in adipocyte mitochondria by an insulin-generated mediator from muscle.
L. Jarett (1979)
10.1042/BJ2310269
The de novo phospholipid effect of insulin is associated with increases in diacylglycerol, but not inositol phosphates or cytosolic Ca2+.
R V Farese (1985)
10.1210/ENDO-116-2-651
Mechanisms subserving insulin's differentiating actions on progestin biosynthesis by ovarian cells: studies with cultured swine granulosa cells.
J. Veldhuis (1985)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)61253-0
Involvement of phosphatidylinositol and insulin in the coordinate regulation of proteoheparan sulfate metabolism and hepatocyte growth.
M. Ishihara (1987)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)47871-4
Insulin-mimetic effect of trypsin on the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in intact adipocytes.
J. W. Leef (1987)
10.1042/BJ0600541
The disulphide bonds of insulin.
A. Ryle (1955)
10.1016/0303-7207(84)90091-1
Insulin activates phospholipase C in fat cells: similarity with the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase
B. Koepfer-Hobelsberger (1984)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1700866
Increase of the catalytic activity of phospholipase C-gamma 1 by tyrosine phosphorylation.
S. Nishibe (1990)
10.1172/JCI111304
Correlation between muscle glycogen synthase activity and in vivo insulin action in man.
C. Bogardus (1984)
10.1073/PNAS.85.11.3753
Insulin-stimulated microtubule-associated protein kinase is phosphorylated on tyrosine and threonine in vivo.
L. Ray (1988)
10.1016/s0021-9258(19)75758-5
Insulin-stimulated diacylglycerol production results from the hydrolysis of a novel phosphatidylinositol glycan.
A. Saltiel (1987)
10.1016/s0021-9258(19)34051-7
Modulation of casein kinase II activity by the polar head group of an insulin-sensitive glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.
S. Alemany (1990)
10.1016/0014-5793(88)80325-9
Different phosphorylated forms of an insulin‐sensitive glycosylphosphatidylinositol from rat hepatocytes
I. Mérida (1988)
10.1073/PNAS.84.6.1502
Rapid stimulation by insulin of a serine/threonine kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes that phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein 2 in vitro.
L. Ray (1987)
10.1016/0014-5793(88)80064-4
Differential down‐regulation of protein kinase C subspecies in KM3 cells
K. Ase (1988)
10.1126/SCIENCE.228395
Generation by insulin of a chemical mediator that controls protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.
J. Larner (1979)
10.1016/0006-291X(92)90867-K
The generation of inositolglycan mediators from rat liver plasma membranes: the role of guanine nucleotide binding proteins.
E. Kilgour (1992)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)68394-2
Properties of a human insulin receptor with a COOH-terminal truncation. II. Truncated receptors have normal kinase activity but are defective in signaling metabolic effects.
H. Maegawa (1988)
10.1016/s0021-9258(17)39842-3
Effects of insulin and protein synthesis inhibitors on phospholipid metabolism, diacylglycerol levels, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in BC3H-1 cultured myocytes.
R V Farese (1984)
10.1210/ENDO-126-1-62
Growth hormone inhibits activation of phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C by insulin in ob/ob mouse adipose tissue.
S. Chou (1990)
10.2337/diacare.20.10.852
Isolation from Rat Adipocytes of a Chemical Mediator for Insulin Activation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
F. Kiechle (1980)
10.1042/BJ2420131
Protein kinase C is not required for insulin stimulation of hexose uptake in muscle cells in culture.
A. Klip (1987)
10.1016/0006-291X(89)91600-8
Retention of specific protein kinase C isozymes following chronic phorbol ester treatment in BC3H-1 myocytes.
D. Cooper (1989)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)37759-7
Insulin-dependent phosphorylation of GTP-binding proteins in phospholipid vesicles.
J. Krupinski (1988)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)61627-8
Identification of a novel insulin-sensitive glycophospholipid from H35 hepatoma cells.
J. Mato (1987)
10.1210/ENDO-120-5-2192
Decreased insulin responsiveness in fat cells rendered protein kinase C-deficient by a treatment with a phorbol ester.
G. Cherqui (1987)
10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80290-0
ACTH stimulates turnover of the phosphatidylinositol-glycan.
E. Cozza (1988)
10.1016/0006-291X(85)90632-1
Studies on the effects of protease substrate analogues on some of the actions of insulin.
N. Begum (1985)
10.1016/0014-5793(88)80524-6
Insulin‐induced decrease in 5′‐nucleotidase activity in skeletal muscle membranes
A. Klip (1988)
10.1016/0006-291X(88)90287-2
Effects of insulin and phorbol esters on diacylglycerol generation and synthesis and hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in BC3H-1 myocytes.
G. Nair (1988)
10.1042/BJ2590601
Inhibitory effects on protein kinase C activity by lipophosphoglycan fragments and glycosylphosphatidylinositol antigens of the protozoan parasite Leishmania.
T. McNeely (1989)
10.1042/BJ2270137
Further evidence for the involvement of a membrane proteolytic step in insulin action.
G. Cherqui (1985)
10.1016/0012-1606(91)90095-K
Inositol phospho-oligosaccharide stimulates cell proliferation in the early developing inner ear.
I. Varela-Nieto (1991)
10.1152/AJPENDO.1986.251.4.E489
Adipocyte glycogen synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase in obese and type II diabetic subjects.
L. Mandarino (1986)
10.1073/PNAS.83.16.5793
Insulin stimulates the generation from hepatic plasma membranes of modulators derived from an inositol glycolipid.
A. Saltiel (1986)
10.1016/0006-291X(89)91533-7
The distribution of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored proteins is differentially regulated by serum and insulin.
M. Lisanti (1989)
10.1073/PNAS.86.6.1756
Nerve growth factor stimulates the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol in PC-12 cells: a mechanism of protein kinase C regulation.
B. Chan (1989)
10.1073/PNAS.80.11.3237
Phosphorylation activates the insulin receptor tyrosine protein kinase.
O. Rosen (1983)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)68361-9
Insulin-induced glycerolipid mediators and the stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes.
M. Standaert (1988)
10.1016/0006-291X(87)90519-5
Inositol glycan mimics the action of insulin on glucose utilization in rat adipocytes.
A. Saltiel (1987)
10.1042/BJ2740369
Transport in isolated rat hepatocytes of the phospho-oligosaccharide that mimics insulin action. Effects of adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid treatment.
J. Álvarez (1991)
10.3109/08977199009071496
Hydrolysis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol in response to insulin is reduced in cells bearing kinase-deficient insulin receptors.
M. Villalba (1990)
10.1038/333269A0
Complete structure of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor of rat brain Thy-1 glycoprotein
S. Homans (1988)
10.1146/ANNUREV.BI.57.070188.001441
Cell-surface anchoring of proteins via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol structures.
M. A. Ferguson (1988)
10.1016/0014-5793(90)80927-B
Growth factor‐induced release of a glycosyl‐phosphatidylinositol (GPI)‐linked protein from the HEp‐2 human carcinoma cell line
J. Roberts (1990)
10.1139/Y85-167
Action of insulin modulated by pertussis toxin in rat adipocytes.
H. Goren (1985)
10.1016/0898-6568(90)90029-A
Control by thyrotropin of the production by thyroid cells of an inositol phosphate-glycan.
L. Martiny (1990)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)61491-7
ATP-Mn2+ stimulates the generation of a putative mediator of insulin action.
S. Suzuki (1987)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)98763-6
Isolation and characterization of the 160,000-Da phosphotyrosyl protein, a putative participant in insulin signaling.
S. Keller (1991)
10.1126/SCIENCE.2843987
Insulin-stimulated release of lipoprotein lipase by metabolism of its phosphatidylinositol anchor.
B. Chan (1988)
10.1073/PNAS.87.23.9421
Regulation of interleukin 2-dependent growth responses by glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules.
I. Mérida (1990)
A proteolytic mechanism for the action of insulin via oligopeptide mediator formation.
J. Larner (1982)
10.1016/S0006-291X(05)80062-2
Insulin activates guanosine 5′-[γ-thio] triphosphate (GTPγS) binding to a novel GTP-binding protein, GIR, from human placenta
S. Srivastava (1990)
10.1073/PNAS.80.8.2137
Tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity is associated with the purified insulin receptor.
M. Kasuga (1983)
10.1042/BJ2690321
Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C in mouse brain membranes.
F. Fouchier (1990)
10.1016/0014-5793(90)81000-E
Phosphorylation control by insulin in adipocytes is interfered with at a post‐receptor step by phosphoinositol and glucosamine
P. Strålfors (1990)
10.1016/0020-711X(87)90171-6
Evidence of an insulin generated pyruvate dehydrogenase stimulating factor in rat brain plasma membranes.
M. T. Rinaudo (1987)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7031900
Insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the 95,000-dalton subunit of its own receptor.
M. Kasuga (1982)
10.1038/352273A0
Biotech grows in Hong Kong
P. Gwynne (1991)
10.2337/diab.5.1.69
Pancreatic Extracts in The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
F. G. Banting (1956)
10.1042/BJ2670541
Insulin-induced phospho-oligosaccharide stimulates amino acid transport in isolated rat hepatocytes.
I. Varela (1990)
10.2337/diacare.13.3.257
Mutations in Insulin-Receptor Gene in Insulin-Resistant Patients
S. Taylor (1990)
10.1073/PNAS.84.9.2663
Purification of a phosphatidylinositol-glycan-specific phospholipase C from liver plasma membranes: a possible target of insulin action.
J. Fox (1987)
10.1073/PNAS.84.18.6404
Glucose transport and antilipolysis are differentially regulated by the polar head group of an insulin-sensitive glycophospholipid.
K. Kelly (1987)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)68393-0
Properties of a human insulin receptor with a COOH-terminal truncation. I. Insulin binding, autophosphorylation, and endocytosis.
D. McClain (1988)
10.1016/s0021-9258(19)75716-0
Human insulin receptors mutated at the ATP-binding site lack protein tyrosine kinase activity and fail to mediate postreceptor effects of insulin.
C. Chou (1987)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)92976-5
Purification and partial sequence analysis of pp185, the major cellular substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
P. L. Rothenberg (1991)
10.1016/s0021-9258(17)44838-1
Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates diacylglycerol production via multiple pathways in Balb/c 3T3 cells.
I. Kojima (1990)
10.1126/SCIENCE.3276003
Structural and functional roles of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol in membranes.
M. Low (1988)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1824727
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol: a candidate system for interleukin-2 signal transduction.
D. Eardley (1991)
10.1042/BJ2560175
Mechanisms whereby insulin increases diacylglycerol in BC3H-1 myocytes.
R V Farese (1988)
10.1073/PNAS.84.12.3972
Insulin stimulates a membrane-bound serine kinase that may be phosphorylated on tyrosine.
K. Yu (1987)



This paper is referenced by
10.1007/3-540-29837-1_12
Antidiabetic activity 1
H. G. Vogel (2002)
10.1002/CPHY.CP070219
Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism
P. Roach (2011)
10.1016/S0167-4889(97)00055-4
HDL3 binds to glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins to activate signalling pathways.
F. Nazih-Sanderson (1997)
10.1016/S0009-8981(97)00161-7
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored membrane enzymes.
N. Hooper (1997)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19980831)398:3<323::AID-CNE2>3.0.CO;2-1
Induction of cell growth by insulin and insulin‐like growth factor‐I is associated with jun expression in the otic vesicle
Y. León (1998)
10.1006/MGME.2000.2988
Inositol phosphoglycans and the regulation of the secretion of leptin: in vitro effects on leptin release from adipocytes and the relationship to obesity.
S. Kunjara (2000)
10.3109/09513590.2014.897321
Modulatory role of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) on LH and insulin secretion in obese PCOS patients
A. Genazzani (2014)
10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1456
Increase of the D-chiro-inositol and D-Pinitol Contents by Abiotic Stress in the Buckwheat Seedlings
Chul-Hyun Ahn (2009)
10.1530/EJE-11-0840
Inositol administration reduces oxidative stress in erythrocytes of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
G. Dona' (2012)
10.1080/15604280214280
Fasting Decreases the Content of D-Chiroinositol in Human Skeletal Muscle
P. N. Shashkin (2002)
10.1089/MET.2016.0009
Pioglitazone Therapy Increases Insulin-Stimulated Release of d-Chiro-Inositol-Containing Inositolphosphoglycan Mediator in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Anshu Gupta (2016)
10.2337/DIACARE.23.7.1000
Effect of pinitol treatment on insulin action in subjects with insulin resistance.
A. Davis (2000)
10.1002/dmrr.218
Prostaglandylinositol cyclic phosphate (cPIP): a novel second messenger of insulin action. Comparative analysis of two kinds of ‘insulin mediators’
P. N. Shashkin (2001)
Myo-inositol products in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treatment: quality, labeling accuracy, and cost comparison.
E. Papaleo (2011)
10.1093/humrep/den097
Greek hyperinsulinemic women, with or without polycystic ovary syndrome, display altered inositols metabolism.
J. Baillargeon (2008)
10.1007/s10522-010-9271-x
Age-related changes in the response of rat adipocytes to insulin: evidence for a critical role for inositol phosphoglycans and cAMP
S. Kunjara (2010)
10.1038/ncpendmet0787
Drug Insight: insulin-sensitizing drugs in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome—a reappraisal
A. Dunaif (2008)
10.1074/jbc.M801781200
Reciprocal Control of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase and Phosphatase by Inositol Phosphoglycans
P. Mclean (2008)
10.1080/09513590903015544
Efficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome
M. Zacche (2009)
10.1007/978-3-0348-8981-0_15
Long-term regulation and promoter analysis of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
M. Patel (1996)
10.1080/10408398.2020.1845604
A review of the role of inositols in conditions of insulin dysregulation and in uncomplicated and pathological pregnancy.
Oliver C Watkins (2020)
10.1021/BI00193A026
Are D- and L-chiro-phosphoinositides substrates of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C?
K. Bruzik (1994)
10.1002/J.1550-8528.1996.TB00271.X
Dietary myoinositol results in lower urine glucose and in lower postprandial plasma glucose in obese insulin resistant rhesus monkeys.
H. Ortmeyer (1996)
10.1007/s001250050715
Insulin mediators in man: effects of glucose ingestion and insulin resistance
P. N. Shashkin (1997)
10.1080/096876800294470
Insulin stimulates the release of a subset of GPI-anchored proteins in a G-protein independent manner
S. Movahedi (2000)
10.1016/j.metabol.2008.08.007
Hyperinsulinemia is closely related to low urinary clearance of D-chiro-inositol in men with a wide range of insulin sensitivity.
Marie-Claude Villeneuve (2009)
10.1515/JBCPP.1996.7.2.121
Characterization of a Nucleotide Stimulated Aspartic Proteinase in Rat Liver Plasma Membranes
C. Paule (1996)
10.1006/MGME.1999.2936
Inositol phosphoglycans in diabetes and obesity: urinary levels of IPG A-type and IPG P-type, and relationship to pathophysiological changes.
S. Kunjara (1999)
10.3390/ijms21249554
Pharmacological Approaches to Controlling Cardiometabolic Risk in Women with PCOS
A. Cignarella (2020)
10.2165/00023210-199707010-00002
Role of Inositol in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
R. Vadnal (1997)
10.1159/000081539
Assignment of phosphatidylinositol glycan, class K (PIGK) gene to porcine chromosome 6q32 by somatic cell and radiation hybrid panel mapping
E. W. Park (2004)
10.1016/S0040-8166(96)80028-0
Intracellular insulin binding in Tetrahymena pyriformis.
G. K. Christopher (1996)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar