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Insulin Mediators And The Mechanism Of Insulin Action.
G. Romero, J. Larner
Published 1993 · Biology, Medicine
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Publisher Summary This chapter deals primarily with the second messenger hypothesis. It provides a comprehensive view of the nature and mechanisms of action of these second messengers. Insulin has been one of the best studied mammalian proteins. After 1955, insulin became the first mammalian protein to be chemically synthesized. The molecular mechanisms underlying the multiple cellular responses to insulin have been the subject of intensive research and, since the discovery of the chemical basis of the insulin-regulated activation of glycogen synthase, the idea that insulin's effects are associated with changes in the state of phosphorylation. However, the molecular mechanisms that link tyrosine-kinase activity of the receptor with the subcellular events that follow still remain obscure. The signal-transduction pathways associated with insulin function are only partially understood. Insulin, on binding, induces autophosphorylation of the β subunit of its receptor and results in the stimulation of the tyrosine-kinase activity of the receptor toward exogenous substrates.
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