Please confirm you are human (Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search
Apoptotic Pathways In Prostate Cancer
S. Denmeade, B. Tombal, J. Isaacs
Published 2001 · Biology
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Publisher Summary The chapter discusses the apoptotic pathways in prostate cancer. Programmed cell death (PCD)/apoptosis is a widespread phenomenon occurring normally at different stages of morphogenesis, growth and development, and in normal turnover in adult tissue. Under these physiologic conditions, PCD is initiated in specific cell types by both endogenous tissue-specific agents (generally hormones) and exogenous cell-damaging treatments such as radiation, chemicals and viruses. Endogenous activation of PCD can occur either due to the positive presence of a tissue-specific inducer, such as the induction of death in immature thymocytes by glucocorticoids or due to the negative lack of a tissue-specific repressor, such as induction of death of prostatic glandular cells by androgen ablation. The morphologic pathway for PCD is rather stereotypical and provides the name apoptosis to distinguish this process form necrotic cell death. Apoptosis is the orderly and characteristic sequence of structural changes resulting in the programmed death of the cell. The temporal sequence of events of apoptosis comprise chromatin aggregation, nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation, and eventual fragmentation of the dying cell into a cluster of membrane-bound segments, which often contain morphologically intact organelles. These apoptotic bodies are rapidly recognized, phagocytized, and digested by either macrophages or adjacent epithelial cells.
This paper references
Thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, discharges intracellular Ca2+ stores by specific inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase.
O. Thastrup (1990)
Wild-type p53 suppresses growth of human prostate cancer cells containing mutant p53 alleles.
W. Isaacs (1991)
A mammalian cell cycle checkpoint pathway utilizing p53 and GADD45 is defective in ataxia-telangiectasia
M. Kastan (1992)
Programmed death of nonproliferating androgen-independent prostatic cancer cells.
P. Martikainen (1991)
Death receptors: signaling and modulation.
A. Ashkenazi (1998)
bcl-2-Immunoglobulin transgenic mice demonstrate extended B cell survival and follicular lymphoproliferation
T. Mcdonnell (1989)
The Central Executioner of Apoptosis: Multiple Connections between Protease Activation and Mitochondria in Fas/APO-1/CD95- and Ceramide-induced Apoptosis
S. Susin (1997)
p53 is required for radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes
S. Lowe (1993)
Cleavage of retinoblastoma protein during apoptosis: an interleukin 1 beta-converting enzyme-like protease as candidate.
B. An (1996)
Caspase-7 is activated during lovastatin-induced apoptosis of the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.
M. Marcelli (1998)
Expression of the protooncogene bcl-2 in the prostate and its association with emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
T. Mcdonnell (1992)
Expression of bcl-2 oncoprotein and p53 protein accumulation in bone marrow metastases of androgen independent prostate cancer.
T. Mcdonnell (1997)
Fas‐mediated apoptosis in seven human prostate cancer cell lines: Correlation with tumor stage
T. Hedlund (1998)
Androgen regulation of c-myc messenger ribonucleic acid levels in rat ventral prostate.
V. Quarmby (1987)
FAP-1: a protein tyrosine phosphatase that associates with Fas.
T. Sato (1995)
Calcium channels and calcium channel antagonists
D. Greenberg (1987)
Defective expression of hematopoietic cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (HCP) in lymphoid cells blocks Fas-mediated apoptosis.
X. Su (1995)
Combined analysis with Bcl-2 and P53 immunostaining predicts poorer prognosis in prostatic carcinoma.
H. Matsushima (1997)
Caspase-3-generated fragment of gelsolin: effector of morphological change in apoptosis.
S. Kothakota (1997)
Calcium channel antagonists delay regression of androgen‐dependent tissues and suppress gene activity associated with cell death
J. Connor (1988)
The fas antigen is involved in peripheral but not thymic deletion of T lymphocytes in T cell receptor transgenic mice.
G. Singer (1994)
The expression of waf-1, p53 and bcl-2 in prostatic adenocarcinoma.
R. Byrne (1997)
Oncogenic potential of bcl-2 demonstrated by gene transfer
John Calvin Reed (1988)
Calcineurin functions in Ca(2+)-activated cell death in mammalian cells
F. Shibasaki (1995)
Hormonally responsive versus unresponsive progression of prostatic cancer to antiandrogen therapy as studied with the Dunning R-3327-AT and -G rat adenocarcinomas.
J. Isaacs (1982)
Dominant nature of the resistance to Fas- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines.
O. Rokhlin (1997)
Activation of a Ca2+−Mg2+‐dependent endonuclease as an early event in castration‐induced prostatic cell death
N. Kyprianou (1988)
Deletion of cells by apoptosis during castration-induced involution of the rat prostate
J. Kerr (1973)
Specific and efficient peptide substrates for assaying the proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen.
S. Denmeade (1997)
Commonality of the gene programs induced by effectors of apoptosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cells.
S. F. Sells (1994)
Identification of a cellular receptor for transforming growth factor-beta in rat ventral prostate and its negative regulation by androgens.
N. Kyprianou (1988)
Mechanism and role of growth arrest in programmed (apoptotic) death of prostatic cancer cells induced by thapsigargin
X. Lin (1997)
Conversion of lytic to persistent alphavirus infection by the bcl-2 cellular oncogene
B. Levine (1993)
Cascade induction of c-fos, c-myc, and heat shock 70K transcripts during regression of the rat ventral prostate gland.
R. Buttyan (1988)
Lymphocyte Apoptosis: Mediation by Increased Type 3 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor
A. Khan (1996)
Induction and activation of tissue transglutaminase during programmed cell death
L. Fesus (1987)
The role of calcium, pH, and cell proliferation in the programmed (apoptotic) death of androgen-independent prostatic cancer cells induced by thapsigargin.
Y. Furuya (1994)
Multiple proteases are involved in thymocyte apoptosis.
B. Zhivotovsky (1995)
Bcl-2 and the regulation of programmed cell death
J. C. Reed (1994)
Cell proliferation, DNA repair, and p53 function are not required for programmed death of prostatic glandular cells induced by androgen ablation.
R. Berges (1993)
Enzymatic activation of a doxorubicin-peptide prodrug by prostate-specific antigen.
S. Denmeade (1998)
Mitochondria and apoptosis.
D. Green (1998)
Androgen receptor localization in different cell types of the adult rat prostate.
G. Prins (1991)
Induction of the TRPM-2 gene in cells undergoing programmed death.
R. Buttyan (1989)
Fas-mediated apoptosis in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines occurs via activation of caspase-8 and caspase-7.
O. Rokhlin (1998)
bcl-2 overexpression combined with p53 protein accumulation correlates with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
I. Apakama (1996)
Evidence for early induction of calmodulin gene expression in lymphocytes undergoing glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis.
D. Dowd (1991)
Spermine prevents endonuclease activation and apoptosis in thymocytes.
B. Brüne (1991)
Androgen‐repressed messages in the rat ventral prostate
M. Montpetit (1986)
Enzymatic activity of prostate-specific antigen and its reactions with extracellular serine proteinase inhibitors.
A. Christensson (1990)
Apoptosis is associated with cleavage of a 5 kDa fragment from RB which mimics dephosphorylation and modulates E2F binding
Wei-dong Chen (1997)
Polyamine depletion is associated with altered chromatin structure in HeLa cells.
R. Snyder (1989)
Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells
D. Vaux (1988)
DNA‐dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit: a target for an ICE‐like protease in apoptosis.
Q. Song (1996)
Fas-mediated apoptosis in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines.
O. Rokhlin (1997)
Enzymatic activation of prodrugs by prostate-specific antigen: targeted therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
S. Denmeade (1998)
Cell death: the significance of apoptosis.
A. Wyllie (1980)
Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programed cell death
Zoltán N. Oltval (1993)
Fas and Fas ligand in embryos and adult mice: ligand expression in several immune-privileged tissues and coexpression in adult tissues characterized by apoptotic cell turnover
L. French (1996)
Assessment and validation of a microinjection method for kinetic analysis of [Ca2+]i in individual cells undergoing apoptosis.
B. Tombal (1999)
Retinoblastoma Protein-dependent Growth Signal Conflict and Caspase Activity Are Required for Protein Kinase C-signaled Apoptosis of Prostate Epithelial Cells*
X. Zhao (1997)
Nonrandom involvement of chromosome 4 in the progression of rat prostatic cancer
John T. Lsaacs (1988)
Involvement of Ca2+ in the formation of high molecular weight DNA fragments in thymocyte apoptosis.
B. Zhivotovsky (1994)
T cells deficient in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor are resistant to apoptosis.
T. Jayaraman (1997)
FADD, a novel death domain-containing protein, interacts with the death domain of fas and initiates apoptosis
A. Chinnaiyan (1995)
Signaling pathway activated during apoptosis of the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP: overexpression of caspase-7 as a new gene therapy strategy for prostate cancer.
M. Marcelli (1999)
Expression of the Apoptosis suppressing protein bcl‐2 in prostatic adenocarcinoma is related to tumor malignancy
P. Lipponen (1997)
Expression of bcl-2 and the progression of human and rodent prostatic cancers.
Y. Furuya (1996)
Regulation of nuclear scaffold protease activity by calcium.
K. Madsen (1990)
Heparin-binding keratinocyte growth factor is a candidate stromal-to-epithelial-cell andromedin.
G. Yan (1992)
Survival factors, intracellular signal transduction, and the activation of endonucleases in apoptosis.
A. Eastman (1995)
The caspase family of cysteine proteases.
N. Thornberry (1997)
Reduced Apoptosis and Cytochrome c–Mediated Caspase Activation in Mice Lacking Caspase 9
K. Kuida (1998)
Cytochrome c and dATP-Dependent Formation of Apaf-1/Caspase-9 Complex Initiates an Apoptotic Protease Cascade
Peng Li (1997)
Cancer statistics, 1999
S. Landis (1999)
Expression of transforming growth factor-β in the rat ventral prostate during castration-induced programmed cell death
N. Kyprianou (1989)
Biochemical characterization of prostatic nuclei. I. Androgen-induced changes in nuclear proteins.
L. Chung (1971)
In vivo DNA degradation in thymocytes of γ-irradiated or hydrocortisone-treated rats
S. Umansky (1981)
Bilateral orchiectomy with or without flutamide for metastatic prostate cancer.
M. Eisenberger (1998)
Intracellular free calcium related to apoptotic cell death in quail granulosa cell sheets kept in serum-free culture
K. D'Herde (1997)
Human prostate-specific antigen: structural and functional similarity with serine proteases.
K. Watt (1986)
Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation
A. Wyllie (1980)
Calcium‐activated DNA fragmentation kills immature thymocytes
D. McConkey (1989)
Modulation of growth and apoptosis response in PC‐3 and LNCAP prostate‐cancer cell lines by FAS
T. Takeuchi (1996)
Cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by a proteinase with properties like ICE
Y. Lazebnik (1994)
bcl-2 gene transfer increases relative resistance of S49.1 and WEHI7.2 lymphoid cells to cell death and DNA fragmentation induced by glucocorticoids and multiple chemotherapeutic drugs.
T. Miyashita (1992)
IAPs block apoptotic events induced by caspase‐8 and cytochrome c by direct inhibition of distinct caspases
Q. Deveraux (1998)
Polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides in relation to androgen-induced prostatic growth.
D. Coffey (1968)
Inhibition of caspases by cytokine response modifier A blocks androgen ablation-mediated prostate cancer cell death in vivo.
S. Srikanth (1998)
Implication of cell kinetic changes during the progression of human prostatic cancer.
R. Berges (1995)
Functional Elimination of Calmodulin within the Nucleus by Targeted Expression of an Inhibitor Peptide (*)
J. Wang (1995)
p53 protein accumulation and gene mutation in the progression of human prostate carcinoma.
N. Navone (1993)
Role of programmed cell death in carcinogenesis.
J. Isaacs (1993)
Calpain activation in apoptosis
M. Squier (1994)
Specific cleavage of the retinoblastoma protein by an ICE‐like protease in apoptosis.
R. Jänicke (1996)
Vitamins and Hormones
R. Harris (1948)
The prognostic value of pretreatment expression of androgen receptor and bcl-2 in hormonally treated prostate cancer patients.
M. Noordzij (1997)
Constitutive and induced expression of APO-1, a new member of the nerve growth factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, in normal and neoplastic cells.
F. Leithäuser (1993)
Caspases and caspase inhibitors.
P. Villa (1997)
Differential Requirement for Caspase 9 in Apoptotic Pathways In Vivo
R. Hakem (1998)
Androgen regulation of programmed death of normal and malignant prostatic cells.
J. Isaacs (1992)
Proliferation‐dependent vs. independent programmed cell death of prostatic cancer cells involves distinct gene regulation
Y. Furuya (1994)
Inhibition of caspase activity does not prevent the signaling phase of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells
S. Denmeade (1999)
Role of nucleases in apoptosis.
B. Zhivotovsky (1994)
Fas antigen-mediated DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphologic changes are regulated by elevated cytosolic Ca2+ level.
Y. Oshimi (1995)
Genetic instability coupled to clonal selection as a mechanism for tumor progression in the Dunning R-3327 rat prostatic adenocarcinoma system.
J. Isaacs (1982)
Role of androgens in prostatic cancer.
J. Isaacs (1994)
Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
J. Kerr (1972)
Growth rate patterns of solid tumors and their relation to responsiveness to therapy: an analytical review.
S. Shackney (1978)
Detection of the apoptosis-suppressing oncoprotein bc1-2 in hormone-refractory human prostate cancers.
M. Colombel (1993)
Locally recurrent prostate tumors following either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy have changes in Ki-67 labeling index, p53 and bcl-2 immunoreactivity.
G. Grossfeld (1998)
Biological significance of measurable androgen levels in the rat ventral prostate following castration
N. Kyprianou (1987)
Differential gene regulation during programmed death (apoptosis) versus proliferation of prostatic glandular cells induced by androgen manipulation.
Y. Furuya (1993)
Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death
D. Hockenbery (1990)
Purification and characterization of the Ca2+ plus Mg2+-dependent endodeoxyribonuclease from calf thymus chromatin.
M. Nakamura (1981)
Constitutive expression of human Bcl-2 modulates nitrogen mustard and camptothecin induced apoptosis.
M. Walton (1993)
Anti-Fas on nonhematopoietic tumors: levels of Fas/APO-1 and bcl-2 are not predictive of biological responsiveness.
L. Owen-Schaub (1994)
Cell death in biology and pathology
I. Bowen (1981)
Cytotoxic chemotherapy for advanced hormone‐resistant prostate cancer
A. Yagoda (1993)
Radiation-induced apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells is independent of mutant p53 overexpression.
N. Kyprianou (1998)
Role of calcium in the programmed death of rat prostatic glandular cells
P. Martikainen (1990)
Relationship between DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in the programmed cell death in the rat prostate following castration
H. English (1989)
A matter of life and cell death.
G. Evan (1998)
Apoptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of disease
C. Thompson (1995)
Radiation-induced apoptosis mediated by retinoblastoma protein.
C. Bowen (1998)
Caspases: enemies within.
N. Thornberry (1998)
Androgen ablation-induced programmed death of prostatic glandular cells does not involve recruitment into a defective cell cycle or p53 induction.
Y. Furuya (1995)
Involvement of the bcl-2 gene in human follicular lymphoma.
Y. Tsujimoto (1985)
Antagonistic effect of androgen on prostatic cell death
J. Isaacs (1984)
Concentrations of putrescine and polyamines and their enzymic synthesis during androgen-induced prostatic growth.
A. Pegg (1970)
Tumor suppressor p53 is a regulator of bcl-2 and bax gene expression in vitro and in vivo.
T. Miyashita (1994)
Investigation of the subcellular distribution of the bcl-2 oncoprotein: residence in the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, and outer mitochondrial membranes.
S. Krajewski (1993)
Regulation of Bcl-2 oncoprotein levels with differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells.
M. Hanada (1993)
Membrane topology of the Bcl-2 proto-oncogenic protein demonstrated in vitro.
Z. Chen-Levy (1990)
Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis.
G. Cohen (1997)
Identification of glutathione S-transferase Yb1 mRNA as the androgen-repressed mRNA by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis.
C. Chang (1987)
ADVANCES IN PHARMACOLOGY
J. H. Burn (1957)
Bcl-2 oncoprotein blocks chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in a human leukemia cell line.
T. Miyashita (1993)
Immunohistochemical study of Fas, Fas ligand and interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme expression in human prostatic cancer.
Y. Sasaki (1998)
Specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: an early marker of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
S. Kaufmann (1993)
Role of p53 in apoptosis.
C. Canman (1997)
Binding of calcium by calmodulin: influence of the calmodulin binding domain of the plasma membrane calcium pump.
M. Yazawa (1992)
BH1 and BH2 domains of Bcl-2 are required for inhibition of apoptosis and heterodimerization with Bax
X. Yin (1994)
Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation
Y. Gavrieli (1992)
Activation of programmed cell death in the rat ventral prostate after castration.
N. Kyprianou (1988)
Cell proliferation studies in the rat prostate: II. The effects of castration and androgen‐induced regeneration upon basal and secretory cell proliferation
G. Evans (1987)
"Thymineless" death in androgen-independent prostatic cancer cells.
N. Kyprianou (1989)
This paper is referenced by
What is New in Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer in 2007
B. Tombal (2008)
Management of advanced prostate cancer: can we improve on androgen deprivation therapy?
J. Anderson (2008)
Current Medical and Surgical Options for Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer Patients
Soley Bayraktar (2010)
What is the pathophysiology of a hormone-resistant prostate tumour?
B. Tombal (2011)
[GnRH antagonists--a new therapy option for advanced prostate cancer].
J. M. Wolff (2009)
Immediate vs. delayed androgen deprivation for prostate cancer
Paul J. Van Cangh (2000)
The importance of testosterone control in prostate cancer
B. Tombal (2007)
Regulation of Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer
S. Gurumurthy (2004)
A supramicromolar elevation of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) is consistently required to induce the execution phase of apoptosis
B. Tombal (2002)