Please confirm you are human (Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search
Analytical Methods To Investigate Glutathione And Related Compounds In Biological And Pathological Processes.
E. Camera, M. Picardo
Published 2002 · Chemistry, Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Reduced glutathione (GSH, gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine) is a fundamental low-molecular mass antioxidant that serves several biological functions. Upon enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, GSH forms glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and, under particular conditions, may generate other oxidative products. The determination of GSH, its precursors, and metabolites in several bio-matrices is a useful tool in studying oxidative stress. Many separative and non-separative methods have been developed and improved for the assay of GSH and related compounds. At present, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis are the most used separative techniques to determine GSH and congeners. The review will deal with analytical methods developed over the last few years for the determination of GSH and related compounds, and with the procedures performed in sample pre-treatment in order to minimize analytical errors. Since GSH, GSSG, and related compounds lack of strong chromophores or fluorophores, it is advantageous, in many assays, to derivatize the compounds in order to improve the detection limit with UV-Vis and to allow fluorescence, thus the most commonly used labeling agents are also described.
This paper references
Capillary Electrophoresis: Principles, Practice and Applications
S. Li (1992)
Enantiomeric separation of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in plasma and serum samples with high detection sensitivity capillary electrophoresis
C. Desiderio (1999)
Derivatization and chromatographic behavior of the o-phthaldialdehyde amino acid derivatives obtained with various SH-group-containing additives.
I. Molnár-Perl (2001)
22. Glutathione Synthesis
A. Meister (1974)
 Glutathione biosynthesis and its inhibition
A. Meister (1995)
In vivo monitoring of glutathione and cysteine in rat caudate nucleus using microdialysis on-line with capillary zone electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection
M. W. Lada (1997)
5-(Pentafluorobenzoylamino)fluorescein: A selective substrate for the determination of glutathione concentration and glutathione S-transferase activity.
S. Arttamangkul (1999)
Glutathione measurement in human plasma. Evaluation of sample collection, storage and derivatization conditions for analysis of dansyl derivatives by HPLC.
D. Jones (1998)
Analysis of biogenic thiols in natural water samples by high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection with ammonium 7-fluorobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-sulfonate (SBD-F)
Degui Tang (2000)
Determination of homocysteine and other thiols in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis.
S. Kang (1997)
Analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in whole cells and mitochondria by postcolumn derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography with ortho-phthalaldehyde.
K. J. Lenton (1999)
Validated high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method for determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in small tissue samples.
J. Lakritz (1997)
Influence of metabolic inhibitors on mitochondrial permeability transition and glutathione status.
D. Reed (1995)
Mitochondrial impairment in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the active phase of vitiligo.
M. L. Dell’Anna (2001)
 Assay of blood glutathione oxidation during physical exercise
J. Viña (1995)
Capillary zone electrophoresis with end-column amperometric detection for the determination of glutathione at a gold/mercury amalgam microelectrode without deoxygenation
W. Jin (1997)
Determination of S-nitrosoglutathione in human and rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance detection after precolumn derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde.
D. Tsikas (1999)
HPLC of amino acids and oligopeptides by pre-column fluorescence derivatization with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-α-(9-phenanthrene)-acetate
J. You (1997)
Vitamin C, uric acid, and glutathione gradients in murine stratum corneum and their susceptibility to ozone exposure.
S. Weber (1999)
Glutathione Oxidation by Hypochlorous Acid in Endothelial Cells Produces Glutathione Sulfonamide as a Major Product but Not Glutathione Disulfide*
J. Pullar (2001)
Quantitative determination and reversible modification of thiols using imidazolidine biradical disulfide label.
V. Khramtsov (1997)
Determination of oxidized and reduced glutathione in pharmaceuticals by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with dual electrochemical detection
L. Manna (1999)
Capillary electrophoresis in the evaluation of ischemic injury: Simultaneous determination of purine compounds and glutathione
F. Carlucci (2000)
Quantitative determination of glutathione in single human erythrocytes by capillary zone electrophoresis with electrochemical detection
W. Jin (2000)
On-line mass spectrometric detection for capillary zone electrophoresis
J. A. Olivares (1987)
Pulsed electrochemical detection of thiocompounds following microchromatographic separations
W. Lacourse (1995)
Determination of biologically active low-molecular-mass thiols in human blood. II. High-performance capillary electrophoresis with photometric detection.
A. R. Ivanov (2000)
High‐performance capillary electrophoretic determination of glutathione in human lymphocytes
M. Raggi (1998)
Rescue of cells from apoptosis by inhibition of active GSH extrusion
L. Ghibelli (1998)
Abnormal Antioxidant Status in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Non‐insulin‐dependent Diabetes Mellitus
S. Vijayalingam (1996)
Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain
R. Dringen (2000)
Determination of thiols following their separation by CZE with amperometric detection at a carbon electrode.
A. Wang (2000)
Intracellular glutathione deficiency is associated with enhanced nuclear factor-κB activation in older noninsulin dependent diabetic patients
F. Arnalich (2001)
Capillary zone electrophoresis separations of enantiomers present in complex ionic matrices with on-line isotachophoretic sample pretreatment.
M. Danková (1999)
Glutathione and its role in cellular functions.
H. Sies (1999)
Mitochondrial impairment as an early event in the process of apoptosis induced by glutathione depletion in neuronal cells: relevance to Parkinson's disease.
M. Merad-Boudia (1998)
Determination of glutathione in vivo by microdialysis using liquid chromatography with a cobalt hexacyanoferrate chemically modified electrode
G. Shi (1999)
 Measurement of oxidant stress in Vivo
H. Hughes (1990)
Blood glutathione as an index of radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice and humans.
J. Navarro (1997)
Determining glutathione and glutathione disulfide using the fluorescence probe o-phthalaldehyde.
A. P. Senft (2000)
Analysis of thiol-containing compounds in biological samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.
N. Ercal (1996)
Quantitative imaging of glutathione in hippocampal neurons and glia in culture using monochlorobimane
J. Keelan (2001)
Rapid and Specific Efflux of Reduced Glutathione during Apoptosis Induced by Anti-Fas/APO-1 Antibody*
D. J. van den Dobbelsteen (1996)
Mitochondrial changes associated with glutathione deficiency.
A. Meister (1995)
Assays for total homocysteine and other thiols by capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detection. I. Preanalytical condition studies.
E. Caussé (2000)
An ion exchange liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione and glutathione conjugates in hepatocytes.
A. F. Loughlin (2001)
Glutathione oxidation in real time by thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J. C. Deutsch (1999)
Quantitation of oxidized and reduced glutathione in plasma by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis.
K. Havel (1999)
Determination of S‐nitrosoglutathione in erythrocytes by capillary zone electrophoresis
I. Messana (2000)
Animal models and molecular markers for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in brain.
V. Ravindranath (1994)
Determination of thiocompounds by liquid chromatography with amperometric detection at a Nafion/indium hexacyanoferrate film modified electrode
S. Zhang (1999)
Determination of glutathione, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine in rabbit eye tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography and post-column derivatization with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid).
M. J. Nozal (1997)
Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in animals.
A. Meister (1994)
Improved electrospray ionization interface for capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry
R. Smith (1988)
HPLC determination of biologically active thiols using pre-column derivatisation with 5,5'-dithio-(bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid).
J. Russell (1997)
Glutathione homeostasis in brain during reperfusion following bilateral carotid artery occlusion in the rat
B. R. Shivakumar (2004)
Regulation of gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase by nonallosteric feedback inhibition by glutathione.
P. G. Richman (1975)
Determination of biologically active low-molecular-mass thiols in human blood. I. Fast qualitative and quantitative, gradient and isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric and fluorescence detection.
A. R. Ivanov (2000)
Qualitative and quantitative determination of biologically active low-molecular-mass thiols in human blood by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photometry and fluorescence detection.
A. R. Ivanov (2000)
Artifactual-free analysis of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitroglutathione by neutral-pH, anion-pairing, high-performance liquid chromatography. Study on peroxynitrite-mediated S-nitration of glutathione to S-nitroglutathione under physiological conditions.
D. Tsikas (2001)
Comparison of HPLC and Enzymatic Recycling Assays for the Measurement of Oxidized Glutathione in Rat Brain
J. Sian (1997)
The effect of cysteine oxidation on isolated hepatocytes.
J. Vińa (1983)
Determination of thiols by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection using a palladium field-decoupler and chemically modified electrodes
Xinjian Huang (1995)
Glutathione depletion in the lens of galactosemic and diabetic rats.
M. Lou (1988)
Biologic and pharmacologic regulation of mammalian glutathione synthesis.
O. Griffith (1999)
Separation of respective species of phytochelatins and their desglycyl peptides (class III metallothioneins) and the precursors glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine with capillary zone electrophoresis
Hiroki Kubota (1998)
Derivatization of peptides for their determination by chromatographic methods
M. Koller (1997)
Selective modification of glutathione metabolism.
A. Meister (1983)
The role of glutathione in the regulation of apoptosis
Liquid chromatographic determination of amino acids and peptides by pre-column fluorescence derivatization with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-α-(9-acridine)-acetate
J. You (1998)
Status of glutathione and other thiols and disulfides in human plasma.
W. Kleinman (2000)
Direct spectrofluorimetric determination of glutathione in biological samples using 5-maleimidyl-2-(m-methylphenyl) benzoxazole
Shu-Cai Liang (2002)
Hyphenated chromatographic methods for biomaterials.
O. Al-Dirbashi (2000)
Simultaneous high-performance capillary electrophoretic determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in red blood cells in the femtomole range.
G. Piccoli (1994)
Comparison of analytical methods for quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing glutathione
M. Raggi (1997)
Sample processing alters glutathione and cysteine values in blood.
B. Mills (1990)
A new HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of oxidized and reduced plasma aminothiols using coulometric electrochemical detection.
S. Melnyk (1999)
Specific thiol determination by micellar electrokinetic chromatography and on-column detection reaction with 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide.
Z. Glatz (2000)
Formation and reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides during oxidative stress. A study with isolated hepatocytes and menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone).
G. Bellomo (1987)
Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide using glutathione reductase and 2-vinylpyridine.
O. Griffith (1980)
The reaction of superoxide with reduced glutathione.
C. Winterbourn (1994)
Simultaneous analysis of the majority of low-molecular-weight, redox-active compounds from mitochondria.
B. Kristal (1998)
Mitochondrial respiratory enzyme function and superoxide dismutase activity following brain glutathione depletion in the rat.
T. Seaton (1996)
A comparison between different methods for the determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in mammalian tissues.
M. Floreani (1997)
Electrochemical detection of thiols with a coenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone modified electrode.
T. Inoue (2000)
Multichannel amperometric detection system for liquid chromatography to assay the thiols in human whole blood using the platinum microelectrodes chemically modified by copper tetraaminophthalocyanine
S. Zhang (1999)
 Labeling of protein vicinal dithiols: Role of protein-S2 to protein-(SH)2 conversion in metabolic regulation and oxidative stress
C. Gitler (1994)
Applications of hyphenated LC-MS techniques in pharmaceutical analysis.
J. Ermer (2000)
Simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione using capillary electrophoresis and laser‐induced fluorescence detection in cultured cell lines
C. Parmentier (1999)
Multiple roles of glutathione in the central nervous system.
Arthur J. L. Cooper (1997)
Automated HPLC analysis of glutathione and thiol-containing compounds in grape juice and wine using pre-column derivatization with fluorescence detection
S. Park (2000)
De novo synthesis of glutathione is required for both entry into and progression through the cell cycle
M. Poot (1995)
Stabilities of the fluorescent SH-reagent eosin-5-maleimide and its adducts with sulfhydryl compounds.
E. Majima (1995)
Analysis of water-soluble antioxidants by high-pressure liquid chromatography.
R. C. Rose (1995)
Monochlorobimane does not selectively label glutathione in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
A. J. van der Ven (1994)
Investigations of S-transnitrosylation reactions between low- and high-molecular-weight S-nitroso compounds and their thiols by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
D. Tsikas (1999)
This paper is referenced by
Use of modified Doehlert-type experimental design in optimization of a hybrid electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique for glutathione determination.
G. Zachariadis (2013)
Glutathione homeostasis Homeostase de glutationa
L. Andrea (2013)
Molecular mechanisms and potential clinical significance of S-glutathionylation.
I. Dalle-donne (2008)
Investigation into the Aroma Stability of New Zealand Sauvignon blanc
M. Herbst-Johnstone (2010)
Design of bis-spiropyran ligands as dipolar molecule receptors and application to in vivo glutathione fluorescent probes.
N. Shao (2010)
Assessment of in situ cellular glutathione labeling with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Laurent Diez (2005)
Simultaneous analysis of multiple aminothiols in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
M. E. McMenamin (2009)
Validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to measure oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione in whole blood and verification in a mouse model as an indicator of oxidative stress.
Sang-Guk Lee (2016)
Mapping of sulfur metabolic pathway by LC Orbitrap mass spectrometry.
Yulan Rao (2012)
Simultaneous and trace determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in minute plasma samples using dual mode fluorescence detection and column switching high performance liquid chromatography.
A. Sakhi (2007)
A simple assay for glutathione in whole blood.
Lovemore Hakuna (2015)
Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and antioxidant defense
A. Molina (2014)
Assessment of reduced glutathione: comparison of an optimized fluorometric assay with enzymatic recycling method.
T. Roušar (2012)
Quantitative analysis of intracellular coenzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using ion pair reversed phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Reza Maleki Seifar (2013)
Altered Glutathione Redox State in Schizophrenia
J. Yao (2006)
Eudragit RS 100 microparticles containing 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and glutathione: physicochemical characterization, drug release and transport studies.
A. Trapani (2007)
An effective strategy for the co-production of S-adenosyl-l-methionine and glutathione by fed-batch fermentation
Jianping Lin (2004)
Determination of plasma aminothiols by high performance liquid chromatography after precolumn derivatization with N-(2-acridonyl)maleimide.
Bistra Benkova (2008)
An UPLC-MS/MS Assay to Measure Glutathione as Marker for Oxidative Stress in Cultured Cells
K. Herzog (2019)
AN ASSAY OF TOTAL GLUTATHIONE AND GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE IN HUMAN WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA USING A HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH FLUORESCENCE DETECTION
R. Kand'ár (2012)
Analysis and Identification of Polyphenolic Compounds in Green Foods Using a Combination of HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS/MS PAVEL ŠKVÁRA, JÚLIA KEZMANOVÁ, CSILLA MIŠL’ANOVÁ, ANDREA VOJS STAŇOVÁ 35–38 Silica Monolithic Capillary Columns for Hilic Separations
A. Pechová (2018)
Enhancing Detection Versatility: MC-CE Device with Serial Dual-electrode Detection for Determinating Glutathione Disulfide and Glutathione in Pharmaceutical Supplement
Fuying Du (2015)
Analysis of Endogenous Particles in Exhaled Air
Ann-Charlotte Almstrand (2011)
An Introduction to Reactive Oxygen Species
H. Synergy (2015)
Fluorescence Detection of Glutathione (GSH) and Oxidized Glutathione (GSSG) in Blood with a NIR-Excitable Cyanine Probe.
C. Liu (2017)
Chapter 2 Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species : General Considerations
V. Dhawan (2019)
Complexation of Al(III) with reduced glutathione in acidic aqueous solutions.
X. Wang (2009)
Derivatization of GSSG by pHMB in alkaline media. Determination of oxidized glutathione in blood.
V. Angeli (2010)
A novel near-infrared styryl-BODIPY fluorescent probe for discrimination of GSH and its application in living cells
Chengjun Wang (2018)
Caracterización de derivados polifenólicos obtenidos de fuentes naturales. Citotoxicidad y capacidad antioxidante frente a estrés oxidativo en modelos celulares
Facultat de Farmàcia (2009)
Encapsulation of fluorogenic probes and pharmacologically active molecules into nanoparticles for enhancing cellular uptake
Główka Eliza (2009)
Quantitation of protein S-glutathionylation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: correction for contaminating glutathione and glutathione disulfide.
M. Bukowski (2015)See more