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Advancements In Prophylactic And Therapeutic Nanovaccines
P. Bhardwaj, Eshant Bhatia, S. Sharma, N. Ahamad, R. Banerjee
Published 2020 · Medicine
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Abstract Vaccines activate suitable immune responses to fight against diseases but can possess limitations such as compromised efficacy and immunogenic responses, poor stability, and requirement of adherence to multiple doses. ‘Nanovaccines’ have been explored to elicit a strong immune response with the advantages of nano-sized range, high antigen loading, enhanced immunogenicity, controlled antigen presentation, more retention in lymph nodes and promote patient compliance by a lower frequency of dosing. Various types of nanoparticles with diverse pathogenic or foreign antigens can help to overcome immunotolerance and alleviate the need of booster doses as required with conventional vaccines. Nanovaccines have the potential to induce both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity and can render long-lasting immunogenic memory. With such properties, nanovaccines have shown high potential for the prevention of infectious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, and cancer. Their therapeutic potential has also been explored in the treatment of cancer. The various kinds of nanomaterials used for vaccine development and their effects on immune system activation have been discussed with special relevance to their implications in various pathological conditions. Statement of Significance Interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system has opened multiple avenues to combat a variety of infectious and non-infectious pathological conditions. Limitations of conventional vaccines have paved the path for nanomedicine associated benefits with a hope of producing effective nanovaccines. This review highlights the role of different types of nanovaccines and the role of nanoparticles in modulating the immune response of vaccines. The applications of nanovaccines in infectious and non-infectious diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS, influenza, and cancers have been discussed. It will help the readers develop an understanding of mechanisms of immune activation by nanovaccines and design appropriate strategies for novel nanovaccines.
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