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Mucosal Immunity And Probiotics In Fish.

C. Lazado, C. M. Caipang
Published 2014 · Biology, Medicine

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Teleost mucosal immunity has become the subject of unprecedented research studies in recent years because of its diversity and defining characteristics. Its immune repertoire is governed by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which are divided into gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT). The direct contact with its immediate environment makes the mucosal surfaces of fish susceptible to a wide variety of pathogens. The inherent immunocompetent cells and factors in the mucosal surfaces together with the commensal microbiota have pivotal role against pathogens. Immunomodulation is a popular prophylactic strategy in teleost and probiotics possess this beneficial feature. Most of the studies on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in fish mainly discussed their impacts on systemic immunity. In contrast, few of these studies discussed the immunomodulatory features of probiotics in mucosal surfaces and are concentrated on the influences in the gut. Significant attention should be devoted in understanding the relationship of mucosal immunity and probiotics as the present knowledge is limited and are mostly based on extrapolations of studies in humans and terrestrial vertebrates. In the course of the advancement of mucosal immunity and probiotics, new perspectives in probiotics research, e.g., probiogenomics have emerged. This review affirms the relevance of probiotics in the mucosal immunity of fish by revisiting and bridging the current knowledge on teleost mucosal immunity, mucosal microbiota and immunomodulation of mucosal surfaces by probiotics. Expanding the knowledge of immunomodulatory properties of probiotics especially on mucosal immunity is essential in advancing the use of probiotics as a sustainable and viable strategy for successful fish husbandry.
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