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Assessment Of Surface Water Quality Status Of The Aby Lagoon System In The Western Region Of Ghana

Michael K. Miyittah, Samuel Kofi Tulashie, Francis W. Tsyawo, Justice Kwabena Sarfo, Archibald A. Darko
Published 2020 · Medicine

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The pollution status of the Tendo Lagoon, the upstream section of the Aby Lagoon System, was investigated. The water temperature, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), nitrates (NO3-), and phosphate (PO43-) levels were evaluated using samples taken during the wet and dry seasons to assess the variabilities in water quality in the area. The water quality data was subjected to paired t-test, One-way ANOVA, Factor Analysis, Cluster analysis (CA) as well as a Water Quality Index (WQI) evaluation using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) model. The paired sample t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the wet and dry season samples (p < 0.05) except for phosphate loads which may be contributed largely by year-round municipal waste discharges. The results of the ANOVA showed that the variation of the water quality parameters among sampling stations was not statistically significant except for turbidity which was relatively higher in the upstream sections where the Tano River enters the lagoon. The results of FA indicated that three significant factors–relating to the degradation of organic materials, suspended solids (turbidity) and nutrients- accounted for 73.65% of spatio-temporal variations in the water quality. The CA showed that the eight sampling stations can be grouped into four distinct clusters based on their water quality. The source of pollution in the demarcated sections of the Aby Lagoon was concluded to be largely due to the result of localized anthropogenic inputs of domestic waste and sediments carried from the upstream in the Tano River. An evaluation of the CCME WQI for the sampling stations revealed that all the sampling stations showed marginal water quality relative to the target water quality range recommended by the Water Resources Commission (WRC) of Ghana for domestic use and protection of aquatic life. Monitoring programs were recommended with effective management measures instituted and implemented for the sustainability of the lagoon and the Tano River Basin.
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