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Pollution Status And Bioremediation Of Chlorpyrifos In Environmental Matrices By The Application Of Bacterial Communities: A Review.
M. A. Dar, G. Kaushik, Juan Fransisco Villarreal-Chiu
Published 2019 · Environmental Science, Medicine
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Pesticides currently play a significant role in enhancing agricultural production and offer economic assistance to our farmers. However, their indiscriminate and injudicious application has caused environmental problems and public health concerns. Chlorpyrifos, a pesticide of organophosphate category is used globally as an insecticide, acaricide, and termiticide in households, public health, and agriculture against pests of a wide range. The extensive application of chlorpyrifos has caused contamination of various ecosystems like soil, sediments, water, air and also leads to the disruption of biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, chlorpyrifos residues have been detected in sediments, soil, water, vegetables, foodstuff and even in human fluids. It has been confirmed that exposure to chlorpyrifos has created health complications due to the inhibition of choline esterase enzyme, which leads to neurotoxicity, immunological and psychological effects in humans plus to the natural ecosystem. Due to the higher toxicity of chlorpyrifos, research is conducted globally to design and develop effective and efficient approaches for the elimination of chlorpyrifos and its associated compounds from environmental settings. At present different techniques are available for detoxification of such pesticides, but the microbial degradation of chlorpyrifos especially by bacteria has proven to be highly efficient, economical and environmental friendly. Thus, this paper aims to provide an outline of research events on this issue and summarize the evidences of chlorpyrifos pollution, discuss the analytical summary of latest research results on bacterial degradation of chlorpyrifos and possible degradation pathways along with effects on its degradation by different environmental parameters.
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