← Back to Search
Abscisic Acid And Abiotic Stress Tolerance - Different Tiers Of Regulation.
R. Mehrotra, Purva Bhalothia, Prashali Bansal, Mahesh K. Basantani, Vandana Bharti, Sandhya Mehrotra
Published 2014 · Medicine, Biology
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Abiotic stresses affect plant growth, metabolism and sustainability in a significant way and hinder plant productivity. Plants combat these stresses in myriad ways. The analysis of the mechanisms underlying abiotic stress tolerance has led to the identification of a highly complex, yet tightly regulated signal transduction pathway consisting of phosphatases, kinases, transcription factors and other regulatory elements. It is becoming increasingly clear that also epigenetic processes cooperate in a concerted manner with ABA-mediated gene expression in combating stress conditions. Dynamic stress-induced mechanisms, involving changes in the apoplastic pool of ABA, are transmitted by a chain of phosphatases and kinases, resulting in the expression of stress inducible genes. Processes involving DNA methylation and chromatin modification as well as post transcriptional, post translational and epigenetic control mechanisms, forming multiple tiers of regulation, regulate this gene expression. With recent advances in transgenic technology, it has now become possible to engineer plants expressing stress-inducible genes under the control of an inducible promoter, enhancing their ability to withstand adverse conditions. This review briefly discusses the synthesis of ABA, components of the ABA signal transduction pathway and the plants' responses at the genetic and epigenetic levels. It further focuses on the role of RNAs in regulating stress responses and various approaches to develop stress-tolerant transgenic plants.
This paper references
ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinase is required for dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis.
R. Yoshida (2002)
Structural Mechanism of Abscisic Acid Binding and Signaling by Dimeric PYR1
N. Nishimura (2009)
Involvement of Arabidopsis histone deacetylase HDA6 in ABA and salt stress response
Li-ting Chen (2010)
The SWI2/SNF2 Chromatin Remodeling ATPase BRAHMA Represses Abscisic Acid Responses in the Absence of the Stress Stimulus in Arabidopsis[W]
Soon-Ki Han (2012)
Identification of Nine Sucrose Nonfermenting 1-related Protein Kinases 2 Activated by Hyperosmotic and Saline Stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana*
Marie Boudsocq (2004)
Arabidopsis mutant deficient in 3 abscisic acid-activated protein kinases reveals critical roles in growth, reproduction, and stress
H. Fujii (2009)
Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants.
V. Chinnusamy (2009)
Recent molecular advances to combat abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants
J. Amudha (2011)
A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans
N. D. Palmer (2012)
Three SnRK2 protein kinases are the main positive regulators of abscisic acid signaling in response to water stress in Arabidopsis.
Yasunari Fujita (2009)
Chromatin regulation functions in plant abiotic stress responses.
Jong-Myong Kim (2010)
HAB1–SWI3B Interaction Reveals a Link between Abscisic Acid Signaling and Putative SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes in Arabidopsis[C][W]
Á. Sáez (2008)
Overexpression of TaNAC69 leads to enhanced transcript levels of stress up-regulated genes and dehydration tolerance in bread wheat.
G. Xue (2011)
Histone occupancy-dependent and -independent removal of H3K27 trimethylation at cold-responsive genes in Arabidopsis.
C. S. Kwon (2009)
Identification of AtHD2C as a novel regulator of abscisic acid responses in Arabidopsis.
Sunandini Sridha (2006)
RNA Silencing Genes Control de Novo DNA Methylation
S. Chan (2004)
Roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in ABA signaling
Y. Liu (2011)
Epigenetic inheritance in plants
I. Henderson (2007)
Protection against the photo-induced inactivation of the photosystem II complex by abscisic acid.
P. Saradhi (2000)
Regulators of PP2C Phosphatase Activity Function as Abscisic Acid Sensors
Y. Ma (2009)
Endogenous siRNAs Derived from a Pair of Natural cis-Antisense Transcripts Regulate Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis
O. Borsani (2005)
The Dynamic Changes of DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications of Salt Responsive Transcription Factor Genes in Soybean
Yuguang Song (2012)
Cellular Memory and the Histone Code
B. Turner (2002)
Histone modifications under environmental stress
S. Pawlak (2007)
HDA6, a putative histone deacetylase needed to enhance DNA methylation induced by double‐stranded RNA
W. Aufsatz (2002)
MP2C, a plant protein phosphatase 2C, functions as a negative regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in yeast and plants.
I. Meskiene (1998)
UBA1 and UBA2, Two Proteins That Interact with UBP1, a Multifunctional Effector of Pre-mRNA Maturation in Plants
M. Lambermon (2002)
Characterization of a phosphatase 2C protein as an interacting partner of the histone acetyltransferase GCN5 in Arabidopsis.
C. Servet (2008)
Maintenance of genomic methylation requires a SWI2/SNF2-like protein
J. Jeddeloh (1999)
The soybean GmbZIP1 transcription factor enhances multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants
Shi-Qing GaoMing (2011)
AREB1, AREB2, and ABF3 are master transcription factors that cooperatively regulate ABRE-dependent ABA signaling involved in drought stress tolerance and require ABA for full activation.
T. Yoshida (2010)
Dynamic changes in genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 methylation patterns in response to dehydration stress in Arabidopsis thaliana
K. van Dijk (2010)
PYR/PYL/RCAR family members are major in-vivo ABI1 protein phosphatase 2C-interacting proteins in Arabidopsis
N. Nishimura (2010)
The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction.
J. Leung (1997)
Abscisic acid-mediated epigenetic processes in plant development and stress responses.
V. Chinnusamy (2008)
Abscisic acid inhibits PP2Cs via the PYR/PYL family of ABA- binding START proteins
Sang-Youl Park (2010)
Activation of Glucosidase via Stress-Induced Polymerization Rapidly Increases Active Pools of Abscisic Acid
K. H. Lee (2006)
Involvement of Arabidopsis HOS15 in histone deacetylation and cold tolerance
J. Zhu (2008)
Pivotal role of the AREB/ABF-SnRK2 pathway in ABRE-mediated transcription in response to osmotic stress in plants.
Yasunari Fujita (2013)
Genome-wide profiling of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation and dimethylation in Arabidopsis reveals correlation between multiple histone marks and gene expression
J. Zhou (2009)
Differential Histone Acetylation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Due to Growth in NaCl : Responses in Salt Stressed and Salt Tolerant Callus Cultures.
J. H. Waterborg (1989)
Patterns and evolution of ACGT repeat cis-element landscape across four plant genomes
R. Mehrotra (2012)
Isolation and identification by sequence homology of a putative cytosine methyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
E. Finnegan (1993)
drought-inducible gene expression
L lynárová (2007)
AtSWI3B, an Arabidopsis homolog of SWI3, a core subunit of yeast Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex, interacts with FCA, a regulator of flowering time.
T. Sarnowski (2002)
ABI2, a second protein phosphatase 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis
P. L. Rodríguez (1998)
Expression of a Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Gene, HVA1, from Barley Confers Tolerance to Water Deficit and Salt Stress in Transgenic Rice
D. Xu (1996)
Novel and Stress-Regulated MicroRNAs and Other Small RNAs from Arabidopsis
R. Sunkar (2004)
Quantitative phosphoproteomics identifies SnRK2 protein kinase substrates and reveals the effectors of abscisic acid action
P. Wang (2013)
Phaseolin gene activation is a twostep process: PvALF-mediated chromatin modifications followed by abscisic acid-mediated gene activation
G Li (1999)
NADPH oxidase AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes function in ROS‐dependent ABA signaling in Arabidopsis
J. Kwak (2003)
Abscisic Acid Inhibits Type 2C Protein Phosphatases via the PYR/PYL Family of START Proteins
Sang-Youl Park (2009)
Passing the message on: inheritance of epigenetic traits.
Donna M Bond (2007)
The evolution of abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA function in lower plants, fungi and lichen
W. Hartung (2010)
beta-Phaseolin gene activation is a two-step process: PvALF- facilitated chromatin modification followed by abscisic acid-mediated gene activation.
G. Li (1999)
Plant bZIP proteins gather at ACGT elements
R. Foster (1994)
Plant PP2C phosphatases: emerging functions in stress signaling.
A. Schweighofer (2004)
UBP1, a novel hnRNP‐like protein that functions at multiple steps of higher plant nuclear pre‐mRNA maturation
M. Lambermon (2000)
Two closely related subclass II SnRK2 protein kinases cooperatively regulate drought-inducible gene expression.
M. Mizoguchi (2010)
Analysis of polarity in the expression from a multifactorial bidirectional promoter designed for high-level expression of transgenes in plants.
C. P. Chaturvedi (2006)
Distinctive Core Histone Post-Translational Modification Patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana
K. Zhang (2007)
Isolation of a wheat cDNA clone for an abscisic acid-inducible transcript with homology to protein kinases.
R. J. Anderberg (1992)
About the special section
F. Stahl (2008)
Regulation of abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure and anion channels by guard cell AAPK kinase.
J. Li (2000)
PICKLE is a CHD3 chromatin-remodeling factor that regulates the transition from embryonic to vegetative development in Arabidopsis.
J. Ogas (1999)
An Abscisic Acid-AtNAP Transcription Factor-SAG113 Protein Phosphatase 2C Regulatory Chain for Controlling Dehydration in Senescing Arabidopsis Leaves1[C][W][OA]
Kewei Zhang (2011)
Constitutive components and induced gene expression are involved in the desiccation tolerance of Selaginella tamariscina.
Mao-sen Liu (2008)
Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Response to Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis and Grasses1
K. Nakashima (2009)
The Arabidopsis CDPK-SnRK Superfamily of Protein Kinases
E. M. Hrabak (2003)
Transcriptional adaptor and histone acetyltransferase proteins in Arabidopsis and their interactions with CBF1, a transcriptional activator involved in cold-regulated gene expression.
E. Stockinger (2001)
The Progeny of Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Exposed to Salt Exhibit Changes in DNA Methylation, Histone Modifications and Gene Expression
A. Bilichak (2012)
The effect of stress on genome regulation and structure.
A. Madlung (2004)
Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
J. L. Riechmann (2000)
PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1-LIKE8 Plays an Important Role for the Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling in Root1[C][W][OA]
R. Antoni (2012)
Genetic control of abscisic acid biosynthesis in maize.
B. C. Tan (1997)
Silencing of Retrotransposons in Arabidopsis and Reactivation by the ddm1 Mutation
H. Hirochika (2000)
SnRK2 protein kinases--key regulators of plant response to abiotic stresses.
Anna Kulik (2011)
Water deficits and heat shock effects on photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana constitutively expressing ABP9, a bZIP transcription factor
Xia Zhang (2008)
Functional characterization of a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 2 in Arabidopsis thaliana under abiotic stress conditions.
J. Y. Kim (2007)
Sequence and expression analysis of histone deacetylases in rice.
Wenqun Fu (2007)
Alterations of lysine modifications on the histone H3 N-tail under drought stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Jong-Myong Kim (2008)
Functional definition of ABA-response complexes: the promoter units necessary and sufficient for ABA induction of gene expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Q. J. Shen (2004)
The Absence of Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in the Arabidopsis hub1 (rdo4) Mutant Reveals a Role for Chromatin Remodeling in Seed Dormancy[W][OA]
Y. Liu (2007)
Abscisic acid and desiccation-dependent expression of a novel putative SNF5-type chromatin-remodeling gene in Pisum sativum.
G. Ríos (2007)
The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene AtCHR12 mediates temporary growth arrest in Arabidopsis thaliana upon perceiving environmental stress.
L. Mlynárová (2007)
Wheat LEA genes, PMA80 and PMA1959, enhance dehydration tolerance of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Z. Cheng (2004)
STABILIZED1, a Stress-Upregulated Nuclear Protein, Is Required for Pre-mRNA Splicing, mRNA Turnover, and Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W]
B. Lee (2006)
Early abscisic acid signal transduction mechanisms: newly discovered components and newly emerging questions.
Katharine E. Hubbard (2010)
Differential Activation of the Rice Sucrose Nonfermenting1–Related Protein Kinase2 Family by Hyperosmotic Stress and Abscisic Acid
Y. Kobayashi (2004)
Biochemical Characterization of the Tobacco 42-kD Protein Kinase Activated by Osmotic Stress1[w]
Anna Kelner (2004)
Cloning and characterization of the SnRK2 gene family from Zea mays
J. Huai (2008)
Interplay between cold-responsive gene regulation, Biol 2007;10:290–300
J Zhu (2007)
Three Arabidopsis SnRK2 protein kinases, SRK2D/SnRK2.2, SRK2E/SnRK2.6/OST1 and SRK2I/SnRK2.3, involved in ABA signaling are essential for the control of seed development and dormancy.
K. Nakashima (2009)
The Short-Chain Alcohol Dehydrogenase ABA2 Catalyzes the Conversion of Xanthoxin to Abscisic Aldehyde Online version contains Web-only data. Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.002477.
Miguel González-Guzmán (2002)
ABA biosynthesis and degradation contributing to ABA homeostasis during barley seed development under control and terminal drought-stress conditions.
C. Seiler (2011)
TaSnRK2.4, an SNF1-type serine/threonine protein kinase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), confers enhanced multistress tolerance in Arabidopsis
Xinguo Mao (2010)
Evidence for Directed Evolution of Larger Size Motif in Arabidopsis thaliana Genome
R. Mehrotra (2012)
Regulatory network of gene expression in the drought and cold stress responses.
K. Shinozaki (2003)
CHB2, a member of the SWI3 gene family, is a global regulator in Arabidopsis
Changhe Zhou (2004)
Identification and Bioinformatics Analysis of SnRK2 and CIPK Family Genes in Sorghum
L. Li (2010)
Induction of tolerance to oxidative stress in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, by abscisic acid
K. Yoshida (2003)
Up-regulation of stress-inducible genes in tobacco and Arabidopsis cells in response to abiotic stresses and ABA treatment correlates with dynamic changes in histone H3 and H4 modifications
A. Sokół (2007)
Role of an Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP-Type Transcriptional Repressor in Abscisic Acid and Drought Stress Responses
C. Song (2005)
HISTONE DEACETYLASE19 Is Involved in Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling of Pathogen Response in Arabidopsis
Changhe Zhou (2005)
Complex regulation of ABA biosynthesis in plants.
M. Seo (2002)
The Central Role of a SNRK2 Kinase in Sulfur Deprivation Responses1[W][OA]
David González-Ballester (2008)
Up - regulation of stressinducible genes in tobacco and Arabidopsis cells in response to abiotic stresses and ABA treatment correlates with dynamic changes in histone H 3 and H 4 modifications
A Sokol (2003)
ABA transport factors found in Arabidopsis ABC transporters
T. Kuromori (2010)
Promoter activation by ACGT in response to salicylic and abscisic acids is differentially regulated by the spacing between two copies of the motif.
R. Mehrotra (2010)
Arabidopsis AtMYC2 (bHLH) and AtMYB2 (MYB) Function as Transcriptional Activators in Abscisic Acid Signaling Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.006130.
H. Abe (2003)
Epigenetic control of plant stress response
A. Boyko (2008)
Molecular Basis of the Core Regulatory Network in ABA Responses: Sensing, Signaling and Transport
T. Umezawa (2010)
Designer promoter: an artwork of cis engineering
Rajesh Mehrotra (2011)
Quantitative Statistical Analysis of cis-Regulatory Sequences in ABA/VP1- and CBF/DREB1-Regulated Genes of Arabidopsis1[w]
M. Suzuki (2005)
Conserved nucleotide sequences in highly expressed genes in plants
S. Sawant (2008)
Endophytic bacteria in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): isolation, characterization, and production of jasmonates and abscisic acid in culture medium
G. Forchetti (2007)
Gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes of the protein phosphatase 2C HAB1 reveal its role as a negative regulator of abscisic acid signalling.
Á. Sáez (2004)
Modulation of an RNA-binding protein by abscisic-acid-activated protein kinase
Jiaxu Li (2002)
The Regulatory Domain of SRK2E/OST1/SnRK2.6 Interacts with ABI1 and Integrates Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Osmotic Stress Signals Controlling Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis*
R. Yoshida (2006)
Interplay between cold-responsive gene regulation, metabolism and RNA processing during plant cold acclimation.
J. Zhu (2007)
Abscisic acid: emergence of a core signaling network.
S. Cutler (2010)
Effect of abscisic acid on the blue green algae Anacystis nidulans and Nostoc muscorum
MR Ahmad (1978)
Transport of ABA from the site of biosynthesis to the site of action
M. Seo (2011)
Reduced DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana results in abnormal plant development.
E. Finnegan (1996)
Disruption Mutations of ADA2b and GCN5 Transcriptional Adaptor Genes Dramatically Affect Arabidopsis Growth, Development, and Gene Expression Online version contains Web-only data. Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.007922.
K. Vlachonasios (2003)
Hyperosmotic Stress Induces the Rapid Phosphorylation of a Soybean Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Protein Homolog through Activation of the Protein Kinases SPK1 and SPK2
D. E. Monks (2001)
Overexpression of a Common Wheat Gene TaSnRK2.8 Enhances Tolerance to Drought, Salt and Low Temperature in Arabidopsis
H. Zhang (2010)
Up-regulation of stress-inducible genes in tobacco and Arabidopsis cells in response to abiotic stresses and ABA treatment correlates with dynamic changes in histone H3 and H4 modifcations
Aleksandra Kwiatowska (2008)
tors of PP 2 C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors
Y Ma (2009)
The bZIP transcription factor OsABF1 is an ABA responsive element binding factor that enhances abiotic stress signaling in rice
M. Amir Hossain (2009)
The Temperature-Dependent Change in Methylation of the Antirrhinum Transposon Tam3 Is Controlled by the Activity of Its Transposase[W]
Shin-nosuke Hashida (2005)
The transcription factor SlAREB1 confers drought, salt stress tolerance and regulates biotic and abiotic stress-related genes in tomato.
Sandra L. Orellana (2010)
Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism.
E. Nambara (2005)
Epigenetic chromatin modifiers in barley: I. Cloning, mapping and expression analysis of the plant specific HD2 family of histone deacetylases from barley, during seed development and after hormonal treatment.
Kyproula Demetriou (2009)
This paper is referenced by
Identification of Drought Tolerant Mechanisms in Maize Seedlings Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Recombination Inbred Lines
Haowei Min (2016)
Phytohormones enhanced drought tolerance in plants: a coping strategy
Abid Ullah (2018)
Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis to predict stress length-specific regulatory networks involved in drought response
S. Akhtartavan (2018)
Análise de transcritoma e expressão gênica de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) submetido ao estresse abiótico
W. Pereira (2016)
The site of water stress governs the pattern of ABA synthesis and transport in peanut
Bo Hu (2016)
Sulfur Metabolism and Drought Stress Tolerance in Plants
Walid Abuelsoud (2016)
ABP9, a maize bZIP transcription factor, enhances tolerance to salt and drought in transgenic cotton
C. Wang (2017)
Comprehensive Analysis and Expression Profiling of the OsLAX and OsABCB Auxin Transporter Gene Families in Rice (Oryza sativa) under Phytohormone Stimuli and Abiotic Stresses
C. Chai (2016)
Drought coping strategies in cotton: increased crop per drop
Abid Ullah (2017)
Molecular Approaches in Enhancing Antioxidant Defense in Plants
Kanika Khanna (2019)
A Sweetpotato Auxin Response Factor Gene (IbARF5) Is Involved in Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Salt and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Chen Kang (2018)
Abscisic acid increases leaf starch content of polyethylene glycol-treated wheat seedlings by temporally increasing transcripts of genes encoding starch synthesis enzymes
L. Wei (2015)
The wheat TaGBF1 gene is involved in the blue-light response and salt tolerance.
Y. Sun (2015)
Cloning and analysis of expression patterns and transcriptional regulation of RghBNG in response to plant growth regulators and abiotic stresses in Rehmannia glutinosa
Yanqing Zhou (2015)
Salt, Cold, and Drought Stress on Einkorn and Bread Wheat during Germination
Nusret Zencirci (2019)
Seed Dormancy: The Complex Process Regulated by Abscisic Acid, Gibberellins, and Other Phytohormones that Makes Seed Germination Work
Anna Skubacz (2017)
Coping with drought: stress and adaptive mechanisms, and management through cultural and molecular alternatives in cotton as vital constituents for plant stress resilience and fitness
A. Khan (2018)
Linking gene regulation, physiology, and plant biomass allocation in Andropogon gerardii in response to drought
Meghan L Avolio (2017)
Spatial and Temporal Variability of Plant Leaf Responses Cascade after PSII Inhibition: Raman, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Infrared Thermal Imaging
P. Vítek (2020)
Genome-Wide Associations of Chlorophyll Fluorescence OJIP Transient Parameters Connected With Soil Drought Response in Barley
M. Rapacz (2019)
Abiotic Stress Responses are Governed by Reactive Oxygen Species and Age
Aakansha Kanojia (2018)
Miscanthus NAC transcription factor MlNAC12 positively mediates abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.
X. Yang (2018)
تأثیر تنش کمآبی بر پاسخ بیانی ژنهای MFNAC، MTNAC و GMNAC گیاهچههای عدس (Lens culinaris M.)
زهرا همت پور (2020)
Tartary buckwheat transcription factor FtbZIP83 improves the drought/salt tolerance of Arabidopsis via an ABA-mediated pathway.
Q. Li (2019)
Expressional characterization of galacturonosyltransferase-like gene family in Eucalyptus grandis implies a role in abiotic stress responses
Longjun Cheng (2018)
Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses
N. Virk (2015)
Drought Stress Tolerance in Plants, Vol 1
M. Hossain (2016)
Maturation of Atriplex halimus L. leaves involves changes in the molecular regulation of stomatal conductance under high evaporative demand and high but not low soil water content
Reham M. Nada (2018)
Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways of Salt Tolerance in Crops: Understanding from the Transgenic Plants
Muhammad Zohaib Afzal (2020)
ENHANCEMENT IN PLANT WATER RELATIONS AND FATTY ACID PROFILE IN SUNFLOWER ( HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L . ) THROUGH APPLICATION OF ABSCISIC ACID UNDER VARIED WATER LEVELS
Abscisic acid enhances tolerance of wheat seedlings to drought and regulates transcript levels of genes encoding ascorbate-glutathione biosynthesis
L. Wei (2015)
Maize roots and shoots show distinct profiles of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense under heavy metal toxicity.
H. AbdElgawad (2019)See more