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Safety Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In Parkinson's Disease: A Review Of The Literature.

Matthew Vonloh, R. Chen, B. Kluger
Published 2013 · Medicine

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BACKGROUND Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used in both physiological studies and, more recently, the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior TMS studies in healthy subjects and other patient populations demonstrate a slight risk of seizures and other adverse events. Our goal was to estimate these risks and document other safety concerns specific to PD patients. METHODS We performed an English-Language literature search through PudMed to review all TMS studies involving PD patients. We documented any seizures or other adverse events associated with these studies. Crude risks were calculated per subject and per session of TMS. RESULTS We identified 84 single pulse (spTMS) and/or paired-pulse (ppTMS) TMS studies involving 1091 patients and 77 repetitive TMS (rTMS) studies involving 1137 patients. Risk of adverse events was low in all protocols. spTMS and ppTMS risk per patient for any adverse event was 0.0018 (95% CI: 0.0002-0.0066) per patient and no seizures were encountered. Risk of an adverse event from rTMS was 0.040 (95% CI: 0.029-0.053) per patient and no seizures were reported. Other adverse events included transient headaches, scalp pain, tinnitus, nausea, increase in pre-existing pain, and muscle jerks. Transient worsening of Parkinsonian symptoms was noted in one study involving rTMS of the supplementary motor area (SMA). CONCLUSION We conclude that current TMS and rTMS protocols do not pose significant risks to PD patients. We would recommend that TMS users in this population follow the most recent safety guidelines but do not warrant additional precautions.
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