Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Therapeutic Applications Of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) In Movement Disorders: A Review.

Nitish Kamble, M. Netravathi, P. Pal
Published 2014 · Psychology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is emerging as a valuable adjunctive therapeutic modality in movement disorders. It is a non-invasive technique of repeated stimulation of the cerebral cortex by a train of magnetic pulses. The therapeutic effect of rTMS was first noted in depression. Later several researchers have investigated the role of rTMS in various movement disorders, notably Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome etc. The rTMS protocols used in these studies vary widely, lacks uniformity and often the results are not consistent. The optimal rTMS parameters for each disorder are yet to be established. This review discusses the current knowledge on the therapeutic applications of rTMS in various movement disorders.
This paper references
10.1016/j.clinph.2004.03.020
Patterns of abnormal motor cortex excitability in atypical parkinsonian syndromes
A. Kühn (2004)
10.1016/S1388-2457(02)00187-6
Nausea as a complication of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the posterior fossa
T. Satow (2002)
10.1111/j.1600-0404.2005.00558.x
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on voice and speech in Parkinson's disease
A. E. Dias (2006)
10.1002/mds.23663
The role of the inferior frontal gyri in cognitive processing of patients with Parkinson's disease: A pilot rTMS study
H. Srovnalová (2011)
Evaluation of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: An underestimated necessity.
S. Bostantjopoulou (2013)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e31820ce6bb
Intermittent theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of Parkinson disease
D. Benninger (2011)
10.1016/S0168-5597(97)00096-8
Risk and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: report and suggested guidelines from the International Workshop on the Safety of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, June 5-7, 1996.
E. Wassermann (1998)
10.1016/0168-5597(92)90133-V
Motor responses evoked by magnetic brain stimulation in Huntington's disease.
B. U. Meyer (1992)
10.1176/AJP.154.9.1277
Decreased motor inhibition in Tourette's disorder: evidence from transcranial magnetic stimulation.
U. Ziemann (1997)
10.3233/RNN-2010-0556
rTMS effects on levodopa induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease patients: searching for effective cortical targets.
G. Koch (2010)
10.1016/J.YNEU.2012.01.008
Therapies for Dopaminergic-Induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson Disease
B. Robottom (2012)
10.1001/ARCHNEUR.59.3.413
Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum in essential tremor: a controlled study.
A. Gironell (2002)
10.1002/mds.23055
Controlled trial on the effect of 10 days low‐frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor signs in Parkinson's disease
P. Arias (2010)
10.1093/BRAIN/119.3.815
Effects of magnetic stimulation over supplementary motor area on movement in Parkinson's disease.
R. Cunnington (1996)
10.1002/mds.20508
Effect of repetitive TMS and fluoxetine on cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease and concurrent depression
P. Boggio (2005)
10.1016/S0140-6736(96)01219-6
Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression
A. Pascual-Leone (1996)
10.1016/S0006-8993(98)01119-6
Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation alters β-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor characteristics in rat brain
D. Ben-shachar (1999)
10.1093/BRAIN/117.2.317
Motor cortical inhibition and the dopaminergic system. Pharmacological changes in the silent period after transcranial brain stimulation in normal subjects, patients with Parkinson's disease and drug-induced parkinsonism.
A. Priori (1994)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000065890.75790.29
The cerebellothalamocortical pathway in essential tremor
A. Pinto (2003)
10.1212/WNL.9.1.65
Akinesia in Parkinson's disease
R. S. Schwab (1959)
10.1177/1545968312445636
Controlled Study of 50-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease
D. Benninger (2012)
10.1097/01.wnn.0000116253.78804.3a
A Pilot Safety Study of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Tourette’s Syndrome
Jeong-Ho Chae (2004)
10.1159/000287208
Short-Term Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Speech and Voice in Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease
L. Hartelius (2010)
10.1016/S0893-133X(00)00099-3
Long-Term Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Increases the Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cholecystokinin mRNA, but not Neuropeptide Tyrosine mRNA in Specific Areas of Rat Brain
M. Müller (2000)
10.1093/BRAIN/117.4.847
Responses to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex.
A. Pascual-Leone (1994)
10.1177/1545968312451915
Combination of rTMS and Treadmill Training Modulates Corticomotor Inhibition and Improves Walking in Parkinson Disease
Y. Yang (2013)
10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09.012
LTP and LTD An Embarrassment of Riches
R. Malenka (2004)
10.1002/mds.22364
Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on Parkinson motor function—Systematic review of controlled clinical trials
B. Elahi (2009)
10.1016/j.clinph.2004.10.003
Subthreshold rTMS over pre-motor cortex has no effect on tics in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
M. Orth (2005)
10.1002/mds.21242
Abnormal responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in multiple system atrophy
W. Löscher (2007)
10.1016/S0924-980X(98)00023-X
Pharmacological control of facilitatory I-wave interaction in the human motor cortex. A paired transcranial magnetic stimulation study.
U. Ziemann (1998)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199810)21:10<1304::AID-MUS9>3.0.CO;2-F
Cortical excitability in patients with essential tremor
S. Romeo (1998)
10.1093/brain/awp299
Altered modulation of intracortical excitability during movement preparation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
K-F Heise (2010)
10.1002/MDS.870130123
Alterations of motor cortical inhibition in patients with dystonia
S. Rona (1998)
10.1212/WNL.52.3.529
Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in writer’s cramp
H. Siebner (1999)
10.1212/WNL.49.4.1054
Impaired inhibition in writer's cramp during voluntary muscle activation
R. Chen (1997)
10.1002/mds.20713
Placebo‐controlled study of rTMS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
M. Lomarev (2006)
10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.08.012
Non-homogeneous effect of levodopa on inhibitory circuits in Parkinson's disease and dyskinesia.
L. Barbin (2013)
10.1093/BRAIN/AWL082
Plasticity in the human central nervous system.
S. Cooke (2006)
Cortical silent period in essential tremor.
G. Shukla (2003)
10.1016/0140-6736(90)92489-5
Preliminary report: activation of the cerebellum in essential tremor
J. Colebatch (1990)
10.1046/j.1460-9568.2000.00243.x
Acute transcranial magnetic stimulation of frontal brain regions selectively modulates the release of vasopressin, biogenic amines and amino acids in the rat brain
M. Keck (2000)
10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70167-X
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with treadmill training can modulate corticomotor inhibition and improve walking performance in people with Parkinson's disease.
M. Mak (2013)
10.1136/jnnp.59.5.493
Changes in the balance between motor cortical excitation and inhibition in focal, task specific dystonia.
M. Ridding (1995)
10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.11.002
Alterations in cortical excitability and central motor conduction time in spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2 and 3: a comparative study.
K. Jhunjhunwala (2013)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000036615.25044.50
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for Tourette syndrome
A. Münchau (2002)
Cerebellar stimulation in ataxia. Cerebellum 2012;11(2): 440e2
SJ Groiss (2012)
10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.12.026
Abnormal Motor Cortex Excitability in Preclinical and Very Early Huntington's Disease
S. Schippling (2009)
10.1002/mds.22434
Effects of inhibitory rTMS on bladder function in Parkinson's disease patients
L. Brusa (2009)
10.1016/S0169-328X(00)00024-3
Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances c-fos in the parietal cortex and hippocampus.
A. Hausmann (2000)
10.1017/S1461145705005729
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS).
A. Mantovani (2006)
10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.12.009
Corticospinal System Excitability at Rest Is Associated with Tic Severity in Tourette Syndrome
M. Orth (2008)
10.1002/mds.23298
Cerebellar dysfunction in progressive supranuclear palsy: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study
Y. Shirota (2010)
10.1007/S11920-008-0052-Z
Emerging treatments for Tourette’s disorder
M. Bloch (2008)
10.1016/j.jns.2009.08.007
High-frequency rTMS over the supplementary motor area improves bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease: Subanalysis of double-blind sham-controlled study
M. Hamada (2009)
10.1016/j.neuron.2007.06.026
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Primer
M. Hallett (2007)
10.1016/0924-980X(94)00336-6
The relation between bradykinesia and excitability of the motor cortex assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal and parkinsonian subjects.
P. Ellaway (1995)
10.1016/j.clinph.2006.03.033
Low frequency rTMS of the SMA transiently ameliorates peak-dose LID in Parkinson’s disease
L. Brusa (2006)
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson 's disease].
A. Potrebić (2001)
10.1016/j.clinph.2007.07.011
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Supplementary Motor Area in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome: Report of two cases
A. Mantovani (2007)
10.1016/j.brs.2013.05.004
Interhemispheric Balance in Parkinson's Disease: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study
F. Spagnolo (2013)
Magnetic stimulation : motor evoked potentials
J. Rothwell (2010)
10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01257-3
Changes in 5-HT1A and NMDA binding sites by a single rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure in rats
M. Kole (1999)
10.1007/PL00007826
Therapeutic effect and mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease
H. Shimamoto (2001)
10.1016/j.jocn.2012.01.049
Transcranial magnetic stimulation at 1Hertz improves clinical symptoms in children with Tourette syndrome for at least 6 months
Kai Le (2013)
10.1136/jnnp.2008.149484
Motor cortex excitability and comorbidity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
M. Orth (2008)
10.1016/j.jns.2010.01.017
Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and off-phase motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease
S. Filipovic (2010)
10.1002/1097-4598(2000)999:9<::AID-MUS6>3.0.CO;2-I
Studies of human motor physiology with transcranial magnetic stimulation
R. Chen (2000)
10.1620/TJEM.189.203
Therapeutic efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation for hereditary spinocerebellar degeneration.
H. Shimizu (1999)
10.1007/s00415-011-5923-2
Effects of rTMS on Parkinson’s disease: a longitudinal fMRI study
N. González-García (2011)
10.1113/jphysiol.2007.144824
Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control
J. Reis (2008)
10.1590/S0004-282X2007000400030
Relief of primary cervical dystonia symptoms by low frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation of the premotor cortex: case report.
N. Allam (2007)
10.1016/J.CLINPH.2006.04.012
Motor cortical excitability studied with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Huntington's disease
C. Lorenzano (2006)
10.1093/BRAIN/AWH315
Subthreshold low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the premotor cortex modulates writer's cramp.
N. Murase (2005)
10.1016/j.neulet.2011.01.007
1-Hz low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in children with Tourette's syndrome
Ho Jang Kwon (2011)
10.1212/WNL.34.8.1059
Huntington's disease
J. Martin (1984)
10.1002/ANA.410370313
Overactive prefrontal and underactive motor cortical areas in idiopathic dystonia
A. O. Ceballos-Baumann (1995)
10.1002/mds.10370
0.2‐Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has no add‐on effects as compared to a realistic sham stimulation in Parkinson's disease
S. Okabe (2003)
10.1002/mds.20064
Measurements of transcallosally mediated cortical inhibition for differentiating parkinsonian syndromes
A. Wolters (2004)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828c2f66
Supplementary motor area stimulation for Parkinson disease
Y. Shirota (2013)
10.1002/mds.21089
Effect of daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor performance in Parkinson's disease
E. Khedr (2006)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03524.x
Retracted: Treatment of articulatory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
B. Murdoch (2012)
Magnetic stimulation: motor evoked potentials. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.
J. Rothwell (1999)
10.1212/WNL.48.5.1398
Depression of motor cortex excitability by low‐frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation
R. Chen (1997)
10.1016/J.NEUCLI.2006.08.003
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): insights into the treatment of Parkinson’s disease by cortical stimulation
J. Lefaucheur (2006)
10.1007/s10548-009-0084-7
Mechanisms and Applications of Theta-burst rTMS on the Human Motor Cortex
L. Cárdenas-Morales (2009)
10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00610.x
Intracortical inhibition and facilitation are impaired in patients with early Parkinson's disease: a paired TMS study
M. Bares (2003)
10.1177/070674371205700303
Canadian Guidelines for the Evidence-Based Treatment of Tic Disorders: Behavioural Therapy, Deep Brain Stimulation, and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
T. Steeves (2012)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation downregulates beta-adrenoreceptors in rat cortex.
A. Fleischmann (1996)
10.1016/j.clinph.2004.05.025
Improvement of motor performance and modulation of cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in Parkinson's disease
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur (2004)
Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.
T. Furukawa (2009)
10.1016/j.brs.2009.10.005
Physiology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain
J. M. Hoogendam (2010)
10.1016/S0304-3940(97)13370-5
Impairment of cortical inhibition in writer's cramp as revealed by changes in electromyographic silent period after transcranial magnetic stimulation
S. Filipovic (1997)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000147336.19972.82
High-frequency rTMS improves time perception in Parkinson disease
G. Koch (2004)
10.1093/BRAIN/AWL031
Motor cortex plasticity in Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesias.
F. Morgante (2006)
10.1016/j.clinph.2008.02.006
Comparative assessment of best conventional with best theta burst repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols on human motor cortex excitability
N. Zafar (2008)
10.1073/PNAS.95.26.15635
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation activates specific regions in rat brain.
R. Ji (1998)
10.1007/BF01273180
Transcranial magnetic stimulation induces alterations in brain monoamines
D. Ben-shachar (2005)
10.1002/ana.20613
Improvement of choreic movements by 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Huntington's disease patients
L. Brusa (2005)
10.1016/j.brs.2012.04.009
Cerebellar rTMS stimulation may induce prolonged clinical benefits in essential tremor, and subjacent changes in functional connectivity: An open label trial
T. Popa (2013)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy: a pilot study.
P. Santens (2009)
10.1155/2013/751925
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Handwriting in Parkinson's Disease
B. Randhawa (2013)
10.1097/00001756-199902250-00027
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has a beneficial effect on bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease.
H. Siebner (1999)
[The cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease].
A. Kanazawa (2004)
10.1016/j.brainresbull.2004.07.004
Long-term follow-up study with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in Parkinson's disease
J. Málly (2004)
10.1097/00004691-199807000-00005
Study and modulation of human cortical excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation.
A. Pascual-Leone (1998)
10.1007/BF01271196
Transcranial magnetic stimulation downregulates β-adrenoreceptors in rat cortex
A. Fleischmann (2005)
10.1212/01.wnl.0000438373.32335.cf
Supplementary motor area stimulation for Parkinson disease: A randomized controlled study
V. Ramos (2013)
10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00649.x
Therapeutic effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor function in Parkinson's disease patients
E. Khedr (2003)
10.1007/s00702-009-0259-0
Effect of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on reaction time, clinical features and cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease
S. Sedlackova (2009)
10.1016/S1388-2457(01)00585-5
Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review
E. Wassermann (2001)
10.1177/1545968308322842
Training Effects Outweigh Effects of Single-Session Conventional rTMS and Theta Burst Stimulation in PD Patients
H. Rothkegel (2009)
10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04300.x
Safety and tolerability of theta‐burst transcranial magnetic stimulation in children
S. Wu (2012)
10.1007/s002210100839
Effect of apomorphine on cortical inhibition in Parkinson's disease patients: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
M. Pierantozzi (2001)
10.1177/1352458508088710
Improvement of hand dexterity following motor cortex rTMS in multiple sclerosis patients with cerebellar impairment
G. Koch (2008)
10.1024//1422-4917.29.4.312
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: excitability of the motor system in tic disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders].
G. Moll (2001)
10.1016/S0304-3940(97)00363-7
Intracortical inhibition and facilitation are abnormal in Huntington's disease: a paired magnetic stimulation study
G. Abbruzzese (1997)
10.1016/S0140-6736(85)92413-4
NON-INVASIVE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF HUMAN MOTOR CORTEX
A. T. Barker (1985)
10.1097/WNP.0b013e318182d304
Reduced Intracortical and Interhemispheric Inhibitions in Corticobasal Syndrome
P. K. Pal (2008)
10.1093/BRAIN/AWG183
Short and long latency afferent inhibition in Parkinson's disease.
A. Sailer (2003)
10.1179/016164105X39897
Influence of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Disease Severity and Oxidative Stress Markers in the Cerebrospinal Fluid Of Patients with Spinocerebellar Degeneration
Y. Ihara (2005)
10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181fc7ccd
Effect of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined with Physical Therapy on l-Dopa-Induced Painful Off-Period Dystonia in Parkinson's Disease
M. Kodama (2011)
10.1016/0924-980X(96)94645-7
Postexcitatory inhibition after transcranial magnetic single and double brain stimulation in Huntington's disease.
M. Tegenthoff (1996)
10.1212/WNL.44.4.735
Abnormal facilitation of the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease
J. Valls-Solé (1994)
THE CORTICOMOTONEURON CONNECTION IS NORMAL IN PARKINSONS-DISEASE
J. Dick (1984)
10.1016/J.NEUCLI.2004.07.003
Low-frequency repetitive TMS of premotor cortex can reduce painful axial spasms in generalized secondary dystonia: a pilot study of three patients
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur (2004)
10.5402/2011/845453
A Comprehensive Study of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease
H. Kimura (2011)
10.1016/j.brs.2008.06.153
Safety study of 50 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease
D. Benninger (2008)
10.1016/S1388-2457(00)00316-3
Effects of chronic levodopa and pergolide treatment on cortical excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
A. Strafella (2000)
10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.07.014
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
Michael D. Orth (2009)
10.1016/S1388-2457(01)00599-5
The prolonged cortical silent period in patients with Huntington's disease
N. Modugno (2001)
10.1038/310407A0
The corticomotoneurone connection is normal in Parkinson's disease
J. Dick (1984)
10.1016/J.CLINPH.2007.01.009
Abnormal intracortical facilitation in early-stage Huntington’s disease
R. Nardone (2007)
Parkinson’s disease rigidity: magnetic motor evoked potentials in a small hand muscle
R Cantello (1991)
10.1055/S-2007-971176
Huntington's Disease.
F. Walker (2007)
10.1007/s12311-011-0329-3
Cerebellar Stimulation in Ataxia
S. Groiss (2011)
10.1212/WNL.44.5.892
Akinesia in Parkinson's disease. II. Effects of subthreshold repetitive transcranial motor cortex stimulation
A. Pascual-Leone (1994)
10.1002/mds.23270
The impact of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in Parkinson's disease: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study
E. Pál (2010)
10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06984.x
Cerebellar involvement in timing accuracy of rhythmic finger movements in essential tremor
L. Avanzino (2009)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181ad5387
Cerebellar magnetic stimulation decreases levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson disease
G. Koch (2009)
10.1002/mds.22348
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for levodopa‐induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease
S. Filipovic (2009)
10.1007/s002210050493
Facilitation of muscle evoked responses after repetitive cortical stimulation in man
A. Berardelli (1998)
[The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the patients with Parkinson's disease].
T. Fukudome (2002)
10.1002/mds.23418
Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
T. Bäumer (2010)
10.1007/s00702-012-0953-1
Acoustic evaluation of short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor aspects of speech in Parkinson’s disease
I. Eliasova (2012)
10.1016/j.clinph.2011.08.033
Continuous theta-burst stimulation of the primary motor cortex in essential tremor
H. Hellriegel (2012)



This paper is referenced by
Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Hand Function of Spastic Cerebral Palsy Children
Josip Glavić (2017)
10.1176/APPI.FOCUS.20180031
A Critical Review and Synthesis of Clinical and Neurocognitive Effects of Noninvasive Neuromodulation Antidepressant Therapies.
S. McClintock (2019)
Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation onMotor Symptoms in Parkinson Disease
P. Hickey (2015)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.01.035
Dynamic aftereffects in supplementary motor network following inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols
Gong-Jun Ji (2017)
10.17116/jnevro20161162129-33
[Efficacy and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of rare forms of muscular dystonia].
S. Likhachev (2016)
10.17116/jnevro201911910122
[Diagnostic and therapeutic issues of using transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with writer's cramp].
A. Poydasheva (2019)
10.1007/s13760-015-0540-y
Motor cortex rTMS improves dexterity in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Eman Elzamarany (2015)
10.1080/03091902.2018.1510555
Neuromodulatory effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses on functional motor performances of spastic cerebral palsy children
M. Gupta (2018)
10.3233/RNN-140489
Efficacy of cumulative high-frequency rTMS on freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease
M. Kim (2015)
EffectsofRepetitiveTranscranialMagneticStimulation onMotorSymptomsinParkinsonDisease A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Ying-hui Chou (2015)
10.4172/2329-9096.1000425
Long Term Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improve Task Performance in a Patient with Multiple System Atrophy
W. Hana (2017)
10.1007/s00221-017-4981-9
The role of the prefrontal cortex in freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: insights from a deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exploratory study
Moria Dagan (2017)
10.4103/AOMD.AOMD_27_19
Approach to the management of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease
A. Lenka (2019)
10.4103/aian.AIAN_102_18
Increasing Number of Therapy Sessions of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Motor Development by Reducing Muscle Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy Children
B. Rajak (2019)
Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: Sleep deprivation in Octodon Degus: Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in spatial learning
T. Abel (2015)
10.1007/s00234-017-1895-y
Altered brain network measures in patients with primary writing tremor
A. Lenka (2017)
10.18632/oncotarget.13060
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease patients
J. Zhao (2017)
10.1007/s00330-019-06269-7
Atrophy of cerebellar peduncles in essential tremor: a machine learning–based volumetric analysis
S. Prasad (2019)
10.1007/S11062-019-09791-Y
Efficiency of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Estimation Using Goniometry and Dinamometry
K. Major (2019)
10.4172/2329-6895.1000329
Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Hand Function of Spastic Cerebral Palsy Children
B. Rajak (2017)
10.1007/s12640-015-9544-x
Cognitive Impairment After Sleep Deprivation Rescued by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Application in Octodon degus
C. Estrada (2015)
10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.4380
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor symptoms in Parkinson disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ying-hui Chou (2015)
10.3389/fneur.2018.01007
Increased Excitability Induced in the Primary Motor Cortex by Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation
Benjamin C. Gibson (2018)
10.1016/j.nicl.2018.11.001
Distinct cortical responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus and of the subthalamic nucleus
C.J. Hartmann (2018)
10.1007/978-3-319-91557-9_16
The Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
B. Dell'Osso (2019)
10.1007/s00415-016-8160-x
Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson’s disease
Hae-Won Shin (2016)
10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.12.001
Augmentative repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the acute treatment of poor responder depressed patients: a comparison study between high and low frequency stimulation.
B. Dell'Osso (2015)
10.2217/nmt-2019-0025
Motor-cognitive approach and aerobic training: a synergism for rehabilitative intervention in Parkinson's disease.
D. Ferrazzoli (2020)
10.2217/nmt-2016-0018
Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: from pathophysiology to emerging therapies.
A. Cucca (2016)
10.1007/s10548-019-00698-9
Cortical Inhibition of Face and Jaw Muscle Activity and Discomfort Induced by Repetitive and Paired-Pulse TMS During an Overt Object Naming Task
C. Weiss Lucas (2019)
10.1016/j.jns.2018.08.014
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to alleviate depression and cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson's disease: A review and clinical implications
René Randver (2018)
10.31661/JBPE.V0I0.879
The Effect of High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Functional Indices of Affected Upper Limb in Patients with Subacute Stroke
F. Haghighi (2018)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar