Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Environmental Fate And Ecotoxicological Effects Of Antiretrovirals: A Current Global Status And Future Perspectives.

S. Ncube, L. M. Madikizela, L. Chimuka, M. Nindi
Published 2018 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
The therapeutic efficacy of antiretroviral drugs as well as challenges and side effects against the human immunodeficiency virus is well documented and reviewed. Evidence is available in literature indication that antiretrovirals are only partially transformed and become completely excreted from the human body in their original form and/or as metabolites in urine and feces. The possibility of massive release of antiretrovirals through human excreta that enters surface water through surface runoff and wastewater treatment plant effluents is now of environmental concern because the public might be experiencing chronic exposure to antiretrovirals. The primary concern of this review is limited data concerning environmental fate and ecotoxicity of antiretrovirals and their metabolites. The review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the evaluation of antiretrovirals in environmental samples. The objective is therefore to assess the extent of analysis of antiretrovirals in environmental samples and also look at strategies including instrumentation and predictive models that have been reported in literature on the fate and ecotoxicological effects due to presence of antiretrovirals in different environmental compartments. The review also looks at current challenges and offers possible areas of exploration that could help minimize the presence of antiretrovirals in the environment.
This paper references
A Comparison of the
H. L. Johnson (1949)
Severe Depression
P. Barker (1992)
A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection.
M. Markowitz (1995)
Adverse effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors: mitochondrial toxicity as common pathway
K. Brinkman (1998)
Acute Hypersensitivity with Delavirdine
G. Mills (1999)
Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy
A. Carr (2000)
Management of the adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy and medication adherence.
B. Max (2000)
Depletion of mitochondrial DNA alters metabolism in SK-Hep1 cells
K. S. Park (2001)
Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine or efavirenz‐containing antiretroviral therapy: Role of hepatitis C and B infections
M. Sulkowski (2002)
Long‐term assessment of neuropsychiatric adverse reactions associated with efavirenz
P. Lochet (2003)
Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: three cases of renal failure, Fanconi syndrome, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
A. Karras (2003)
Ranking and prioritization of environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters.
H. Sanderson (2004)
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults in Soweto, South Africa.
J. Nachega (2004)
Facteurs de risque de syndrome d'hypersensibilité à l'Abacavir en pratique clinique de routine
C. Chirouze (2004)
Depletion of mitochondrial DNA in liver under antiretroviral therapy with didanosine, stavudine, or zalcitabine
U. Walker (2004)
Risk factors for abacavir-induc
B. Hoen (2004)
Cutaneous effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV‐infected patients
H. Kong (2005)
[Adverse effects].
I. Boissevain (2005)
Cutaneous effects of hig
H. Kong (2005)
Efavirenz and chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms: a cross‐sectional case control study
T. Rihs (2006)
Computational design and synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers with high binding capacity for pharmaceutical applications-model case: Adsorbent for abacavir
I. Chianella (2006)
Current status of antiretroviral therapy
Z. Temesgen (2006)
An information-motivation-behavioral skills model of adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
J. Fisher (2006)
Antiretroviral-Associated Toxicity Among HIV-1-Seropositive Pregnant Women in Mozambique Receiving Nevirapine-Based Regimens
L. Jamisse (2007)
Antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for occupational HIV exposure.
T. Young (2007)
Antiretroviral Drugs
D. Warnke (2007)
Side effects of HIV therapy
S. Esser (2007)
Mitochondrial Toxicity of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Abacavir Alone and in Combination with Additional Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
N. Venhoff (2007)
Acute interstitial nephritis of HIV-positive patients under atazanavir and tenofovir therapy in a retrospective analysis of kidney biopsies
S. Schmid (2007)
Ten years of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection
L. Chen (2007)
Ten years of hi
L. Chen (2007)
Toxicity of HIV protease inhibitors: clinical considerations
C. Boesecke (2008)
Hepatotoxicity in patients prescribed efavirenz or nevirapine.
S. Brueck (2008)
Current use of antiretroviral treatment.
A. C. Bailey (2008)
Toxicity of HIV
C. Boesecke (2008)
Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in milk.
L. C. D. S. Macedo (2009)
Safety and efficacy of raltegravir-based versus efavirenz-based combination therapy in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 infection: a multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial
Jeffrey L. Lennox (2009)
Study of forced decomposition behavior of lamivudine using LC, LC-MS/TOF and MS(n).
Gaurav Bedse (2009)
Human health risk assessment from the presence of human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment.
V. Cunningham (2009)
Antiviral drugs in wastewater and surface waters: a new pharmaceutical class of environmental relevance?
C. Prasse (2010)
Tolerability of HIV postexposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine and lopinavir/ritonavir tablet formulation
W. Tosini (2010)
Study on pretreatment of wastewater from lamivudine production by iron-carbon microelectrolysis process
Yin Ren-da (2010)
The frequency and reasons for antiretroviral switching with specific antiretroviral associations: the SWITCH study.
I. Davidson (2010)
Understanding and managing the adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy.
T. Hawkins (2010)
Nucleoside and nucleotide HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors: 25 years after zidovudine.
T. Cihlář (2010)
Current status and challenges of antiretroviral research and therapy.
J. Esté (2010)
Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals.
J. Fick (2010)
Fate of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir in agricultural soil.
A. J. Al-Rajab (2010)
Sampling for pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and illicit drugs in wastewater systems: are your conclusions valid? A critical review.
C. Ort (2010)
Study on pretreatment of wastewater
bone and the kidney of switching from fixed - dose tenofovir disoproxil 938 fumarate / emtricitabine / efavirenz to darunavir / ritonavir monotherapy : a randomized , controlled 939 trial ( MIDAS )
T. Hawkins (2010)
Tolerability of H
E. Bouvet (2010)
Photocatalytic degradation kinetics and mechanism of antivirus drug-lamivudine in TiO2 dispersion.
T. An (2011)
Synergetic Degradation of Zidovudine Wastewater by Ultrasonic and Iron-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis
L. Li (2011)
Environmental toxicology and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals from hospital wastewater.
B. Escher (2011)
A Systematic Review of the Psychiatric Side-Effects of Efavirenz
C. Kenedi (2011)
Tenofovir Nephrotoxicity: 2011 Update
B. Fernandez-Fernandez (2011)
Comparison of the influence of four classes of HIV antiretrovirals on adipogenic differentiation: the minimal effect of raltegravir and atazanavir
R. Minami (2011)
A longitudinal study of stavudine-associated toxicities in a large cohort of South African HIV infected subjects
C. Menezes (2011)
Pharmacological considerations for tenofovir and emtricitabine to prevent HIV infection.
P. Anderson (2011)
Interaction between Antiretroviral Drugs and Acenocoumarol
M. Welzen (2011)
Hospital wastewater treatment by membrane bioreactor: performance and efficiency for organic micropollutant elimination.
Lubomira Kovalova (2012)
Identification and prioritization of bioaccumulable pharmaceutical substances discharged in hospital effluents.
J. Jean (2012)
Raltegravir, Tenofovir DF, and Emtricitabine for Postexposure Prophylaxis to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV: Safety, Tolerability, and Adherence
K. Mayer (2012)
From multi-residue screening to target analysis of pharmaceuticals in water: development of a new approach based on magnetic sector mass spectrometry and application in the Nairobi River basin, Kenya.
K. K'oreje (2012)
Consumption-based approach for assessing the contribution of hospitals towards the load of pharmaceutical residues in municipal wastewater.
K. L. Le Corre (2012)
Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.
V. Roos (2012)
HIV-1 antiretroviral drug therapy.
E. Arts (2012)
The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease
S. Deeks (2013)
Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater: ozone or powdered activated carbon?
Jonas Margot (2013)
Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: A Review of its Use in HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
G. Plosker (2013)
Occurrence and Removal of Antiviral Drugs in Environment: A Review
Swati Jain (2013)
Environmental impact of medical prescriptions: assessing the risks and hazards of persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of pharmaceuticals.
T. Deblonde (2013)
Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: a review.
Frédéric Orias (2013)
Neurological and Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs
M. Abers (2013)
Viral suppression and adherence among HIV-infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy: results of a multicenter study.
M. Cruz (2014)
Toxicities of 48 pharmaceuticals and their freshwater and marine environmental assessment in northwestern France
L. Minguez (2014)
Contaminants of emerging concern in fresh leachate from landfills in the conterminous United States.
J. Masoner (2014)
Forty-eight-week efficacy and safety and early CNS tolerability of doravirine (MK-1439), a novel NNRTI, with TDF/FTC in ART-naive HIV-positive patients
J. Gatell (2014)
Using biomarkers in wastewater to monitor community drug use: a conceptual approach for dealing with new psychoactive substances.
M. Reid (2014)
Changes in renal function associated with oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis
M. M. Solomon (2014)
Profile and behavior of antiviral drugs in aquatic environments of the Pearl River Delta, China.
X. Peng (2014)
HIV cure research: advances and prospects.
Caroline P. B. Passaes (2014)
Neuronal bioenergetics and acute mitochondrial dysfunction: a clue to understanding the central nervous system side effects of efavirenz.
H. A. Funes (2014)
Superior Removal of Disinfection Byproduct Precursors and Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater in a Staged Anaerobic Fluidized Membrane Bioreactor Compared to Activated Sludge
Daniel L McCurry (2014)
Simultaneous detection of three antiviral and four antibiotic compounds in source-separated urine with liquid chromatography.
Sanna T. Pynnönen (2014)
HIV cure rese
C. P. Passaes (2014)
Profile and behavior
Y. Yu (2014)
Development and application of a multi-residue method for the determination of 53 pharmaceuticals in water, sediment, and suspended solids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Yann Aminot (2015)
Do Pharmaceuticals Pose a Threat to Primary Producers?
Jiahua Guo (2015)
The occurrence of anti-retroviral compounds used for HIV treatment in South African surface water.
Timothy Paul Wood (2015)
Pathogens and pharmaceuticals in source-separated urine in eThekwini, South Africa.
Heather N. Bischel (2015)
Efavirenz : a review of the epidemiology, severity and management of neuropsychiatric side-effects
R. Gaida (2015)
Photolysis of three antiviral drugs acyclovir, zidovudine and lamivudine in surface freshwater and seawater.
C. Zhou (2015)
Stability behaviour of antiretroviral drugs and their combinations. 1: characterization of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate degradation products by mass spectrometry
Moolchand Kurmi (2015)
HIV protease inhibitors: a review of molecular selectivity and toxicity
Zhengtong Lv (2015)
Enhanced Eryptosis Following Exposure to Lopinavir
R. Bissinger (2015)
Co-occurrence of Photochemical and Microbiological Transformation Processes in Open-Water Unit Process Wetlands.
C. Prasse (2015)
ARVs: The Next Generation. Going Boldly Together to New Frontiers of HIV Treatment
M. Barnhart (2015)
Behavioral Economics Matters for HIV Research: The Impact of Behavioral Biases on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (ARVs)
S. Linnemayr (2015)
Is there a risk for the aquatic environment due to the existence of emerging organic contaminants in treated domestic wastewater? Greece as a case-study.
V. Thomaidi (2015)
The epi-TAF for TDF?
R. Walensky (2015)
Prioritization methodology for the monitoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients in hospital effluents.
S. Daouk (2015)
Targeted and non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric workflows for identification of transformation products of emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment
A. Bletsou (2015)
ARVs: The next gen
M. Barnhart (2015)
Co-occurrence of photochemical
D. L. edlak (2015)
Enhanced eryptosis
S. Abbes (2015)
Behavioral econom
S. Linnemayr (2015)
Do pharmaceut
J. Guo (2015)
Stimulating Effect of Elvitegravir on Suicidal Erythrocyte Death
R. Bissinger (2016)
Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.
J. Funke (2016)
Identification of markers of cancer in urban sewage through the use of a suspect screening approach.
L. Ferrando-Climent (2016)
Ranking prescribed pharmaceuticals in terms of environmental risk: Inclusion of hospital data and the importance of regular review.
Karin Helwig (2016)
Stability behaviour of antiretroviral drugs and their combinations. 4: Characterization of degradation products of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate and comparison of its degradation and stability behaviour with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
Vijaya Madhyanapu Golla (2016)
Stability behaviour of antiretroviral drugs and their combinations. 2: Characterization of interaction products of lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate by mass and NMR spectrometry.
Moolchand Kurmi (2016)
Stability behaviour of antiretroviral drugs and their combinations. 3: Characterization of interaction products of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate by mass spectrometry.
Moolchand Kurmi (2016)
A multiresidue analytical method for trace level determination of antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in wastewater and surface water using SPE-LC-MS/MS and matrix-matched standards
E. Ngumba (2016)
"They are looking just the same": Antiretroviral treatment as social danger in rural Malawi.
A. Kaler (2016)
Effects on Vitamin D, Bone and the Kidney of Switching from Fixed-Dose Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine/Efavirenz to Darunavir/ Ritonavir Monotherapy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (MIDAS)
L. Hamzah (2016)
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) as the successor of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)
E. Clercq (2016)
The Epi-TAF for Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate?
R. Walensky (2016)
Current status and prospects of HIV treatment.
T. Cihlář (2016)
Occurrence patterns of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater, surface water and groundwater of Nairobi and Kisumu city, Kenya.
K. K'oreje (2016)
Enhanced Eryptosis Following Exposure to Dolutegravir
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan (2016)
Preparation of molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug abacavir in environmental and biological matrices.
Z. Terzopoulou (2016)
Switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide in antiretroviral regimens for virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1 infection: a randomised, active-controlled, multicentre, open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority study.
A. Mills (2016)
Inputs and seasonal removal of pharmaceuticals in the estuarine Garonne River
Yann Aminot (2016)
Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial
S. Mccormack (2016)
The impact of onsite wastewater disposal systems on groundwater in areas inundated by Hurricane Sandy in New York and New Jersey.
I. Fisher (2016)
The chlorination behaviour and environmental fate of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine in South African surface water.
Timothy Paul Wood (2016)
The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine
S. Jaatinen (2016)
Occurrence of selected antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in Nairobi River Basin, Kenya.
E. Ngumba (2016)
Inputs and seasonal
H. Budzinski (2016)
Stability behaviour of antiretroviral
S. h (2016)
2016) Surface water
Status of pharmaceuticals in African water bodies: Occurrence, removal and analytical methods.
L. M. Madikizela (2017)
Emerging investigators series: prioritization of suspect hits in a sensitive suspect screening workflow for comprehensive micropollutant characterization in environmental samples
Amy L. Pochodylo (2017)
The potential effects of efavirenz on Oreochromis mossambicus after acute exposure.
L. Robson (2017)
Stability behavior of antiretroviral drugs and their combinations. 7: Comparative degradation pathways of lamivudine and emtricitabine and explanation to their differential degradation behavior by density functional theory
Moolchand Kurmi (2017)
Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients Receiving Dolutegravir
Anna Fettiplace (2017)
When could new antiretrovirals be recommended for national treatment programmes in low-income and middle-income countries: results of a WHO Think Tank
M. Vitoria (2017)
Occurrences and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water and water/sewage treatment plants: A review.
Yi Yang (2017)
Why regulatory indifference towards pharmaceutical pollution of the environment could be a missed opportunity in public health protection. a holistic view
P. F. Kamba (2017)
Nationwide reconnaissance of contaminants of emerging concern in source and treated drinking waters of the United States☆
Susan T. Glassmeyer (2017)
Determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals and antiretroviral compounds in surface water: A disposable sorptive sampler with comprehensive gas chromatography - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry and large volume injection with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Madelien Wooding (2017)
UHPLC-QTOF MS screening of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in treated wastewater samples from Athens.
M. Ibáñez (2017)
Occurrence of antimicrobial agents, drug-resistant bacteria, and genes in the sewage-impacted Vistula River (Poland)
J. Giebułtowicz (2017)
The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017 Wastewater: The Untapped Resource
Permani C Weerasekara (2017)
The impact of a Wastewater Treatment Works in Southern Gauteng, South Africa on efavirenz and nevirapine discharges into the aquatic environment
C. Schoeman (2017)
Stability behavior of a
M. Kurmi (2017)
Probabilistic population
A. E. tery (2017)
Suspended solids moderate the degradation and sorption of waste water-derived pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters.
Y. Aminot (2018)
Organic contaminants in African aquatic systems: Current knowledge, health risks, and future research directions.
W. Gwenzi (2018)
LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
O. A. Abafe (2018)
Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Contaminants of Emerging Concern
J. Cotruvo (2018)
Sorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients in untreated wastewater effluent and effect of dilution in freshwater: Implications for an "impact zone" environmental risk assessment approach.
Simone Bagnis (2018)
Contaminants of emerging concern in the Hartbeespoort Dam catchment and the uMngeni River estuary 2016 pollution incident, South Africa.
Cornelius Rimayi (2018)
Probabilistic population projections for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics
D. Sharrow (2018)
Tenofovir Alafenamide ( TAF ) Induced Liver Failure
Dhuha Alhankawi (2018)
Severe depression as a neuropsychiatric side effect induced by dolutegravir
H. Scheper (2018)
Suspended solids moderate
H. Budzinski (2018)
Sorption of active
S. Comber (2018)
Stability behaviour of antiretroviral drugs and their combinations. 9: Identification of incompatible excipients
Moolchand Kurmi (2019)

This paper is referenced by
Histopathological changes in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) ovaries after a chronic exposure to a mixture of the HIV drug nevirapine and the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim
U. Nibamureke (2021)
Antiretroviral drugs in African surface waters: prevalence, analysis and potential remediation.
A. O. Adeola (2021)
Algae-mediated processes for the treatment of antiretroviral drugs in wastewater: Prospects and challenges.
K. Reddy (2021)
An adsorbent composed of alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and activated carbon (AC@PVP@alginate) for ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro-solid phase extraction of nevirapine and zidovudine in environmental water samples
Mpingana Ndilimeke Akawa (2021)
Environmental Risk Characterization of an Antiretroviral (ARV) Lamivudine in Ecosystems
E. O. Omotola (2021)
Ozonation products of zidovudine and thymidine in oxidative water treatment
J. Funke (2021)
Identification of Antibiotics in Surface-Groundwater. A Tool towards the Ecopharmacovigilance Approach: A Portuguese Case-Study
P. Viana (2021)
A comprehensive review on preparation, functionalization and recent applications of nanofiber membranes in wastewater treatment.
Eslam Ibrahim El-Aswar (2021)
Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution and environmental fate of pharmaceutical residues in urban estuaries
Juan Carlos Durán-Álvarez (2021)
Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters
K. Kuroda (2021)
Adsorption of antiretroviral (ARVs) and related drugs from environmental wastewaters using nanofibers
T. Kebede (2020)
Occurrence and risk assessment of organic micropollutants in freshwater systems within the Lake Victoria South Basin, Kenya.
F. Kandie (2020)
Contamination of Surface Water and River Sediments by Antibiotic and Antiretroviral Drug Cocktails in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Occurrence, Risk and Mitigation Strategies
P. Kairigo (2020)
A chronicle of SARS-CoV-2: Seasonality, environmental fate, transport, inactivation, and antiviral drug resistance
Manish Kumar (2020)
Molecular Methods as Potential Tools in Ecohydrological Studies on Emerging Contaminants in Freshwater Ecosystems
E. Mierzejewska (2020)
Mass loading, distribution, and removal of antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in selected wastewater treatment plants in Kenya.
Cecilia W. Muriuki (2020)
Photocatalytic degradation of nevirapine with a heterostructure of few-layer black phosphorus coupled with niobium (V) oxide nanoflowers (FL-BP@Nb2O5).
Yoliswa A Bhembe (2020)
Natural Purification Through Soils: Risks and Opportunities of Sewage Effluent Reuse in Sub-surface Irrigation.
Dominique M Narain-Ford (2020)
Bioaccumulation and glutathione S-transferase activity on Rhinella arenarum tadpoles after short-term exposure to antiretrovirals.
L. P. Fernández (2020)
Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in South Africa and Mozambique—Analysis of the Most Critical Pollutants for Drinking Purposes and Challenges in Water Treatment Selection
P. Verlicchi (2020)
Fluorescence-kinetic four-way data generation and modeling for abacavir determination in water samples
L. P. Fernández (2020)
Pharmaceuticals roles in microbial evolution
Bhoomika Yadav (2020)
Determination of selected antiretroviral drugs in wastewater, surface water and aquatic plants using hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.
Nomchenge Yamkelani Mlunguza (2019)
Simultaneous quantification of commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs and their selected metabolites in aqueous environmental samples by direct injection and solid phase extraction liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.
T. Mosekiemang (2019)
Analysis, occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in African water resources: A current status.
L. M. Madikizela (2019)
Hatching success and survival of fish early life stages in a chronic exposure to nevirapine: a case study of the Mozambique tilapia
U. Nibamureke (2019)
Occurrence and treatment of contaminants of emerging concern in the African aquatic environment: Literature review and a look ahead.
K. K'oreje (2019)
Determination of naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen in Umgeni estuary and seawater: A case of northern Durban in KwaZulu–Natal Province of South Africa
N. P. Ngubane (2019)
Antiviral drugs in aquatic environment and wastewater treatment plants: A review on occurrence, fate, removal and ecotoxicity.
C. Nannou (2019)
Toxicity for Aquatic Organisms of Antiretroviral Tenofovir Disoproxil
S. R. Silva (2019)
Analytical strategies for the determination of antiviral drugs in the aquatic environment
C. Nannou (2019)
Endocrine disrupting effects of HIV antiretrovirals in the South African aquatic environment
Elisca Gerber (2017)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar