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Environmental Fate And Ecotoxicological Effects Of Antiretrovirals: A Current Global Status And Future Perspectives.

S. Ncube, L. M. Madikizela, L. Chimuka, M. Nindi
Published 2018 · Medicine

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The therapeutic efficacy of antiretroviral drugs as well as challenges and side effects against the human immunodeficiency virus is well documented and reviewed. Evidence is available in literature indication that antiretrovirals are only partially transformed and become completely excreted from the human body in their original form and/or as metabolites in urine and feces. The possibility of massive release of antiretrovirals through human excreta that enters surface water through surface runoff and wastewater treatment plant effluents is now of environmental concern because the public might be experiencing chronic exposure to antiretrovirals. The primary concern of this review is limited data concerning environmental fate and ecotoxicity of antiretrovirals and their metabolites. The review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the evaluation of antiretrovirals in environmental samples. The objective is therefore to assess the extent of analysis of antiretrovirals in environmental samples and also look at strategies including instrumentation and predictive models that have been reported in literature on the fate and ecotoxicological effects due to presence of antiretrovirals in different environmental compartments. The review also looks at current challenges and offers possible areas of exploration that could help minimize the presence of antiretrovirals in the environment.
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Eslam Ibrahim El-Aswar (2021)
10.1016/b978-0-08-102971-8.00020-2
Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution and environmental fate of pharmaceutical residues in urban estuaries
Juan Carlos Durán-Álvarez (2021)
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145740
Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters
K. Kuroda (2021)
10.1016/j.jece.2020.104049
Adsorption of antiretroviral (ARVs) and related drugs from environmental wastewaters using nanofibers
T. Kebede (2020)
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136748
Occurrence and risk assessment of organic micropollutants in freshwater systems within the Lake Victoria South Basin, Kenya.
F. Kandie (2020)
10.3390/w12051376
Contamination of Surface Water and River Sediments by Antibiotic and Antiretroviral Drug Cocktails in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Occurrence, Risk and Mitigation Strategies
P. Kairigo (2020)
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124043
A chronicle of SARS-CoV-2: Seasonality, environmental fate, transport, inactivation, and antiviral drug resistance
Manish Kumar (2020)
10.3390/w12112962
Molecular Methods as Potential Tools in Ecohydrological Studies on Emerging Contaminants in Freshwater Ecosystems
E. Mierzejewska (2020)
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140655
Mass loading, distribution, and removal of antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in selected wastewater treatment plants in Kenya.
Cecilia W. Muriuki (2020)
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128159
Photocatalytic degradation of nevirapine with a heterostructure of few-layer black phosphorus coupled with niobium (V) oxide nanoflowers (FL-BP@Nb2O5).
Yoliswa A Bhembe (2020)
10.1007/398_2020_49
Natural Purification Through Soils: Risks and Opportunities of Sewage Effluent Reuse in Sub-surface Irrigation.
Dominique M Narain-Ford (2020)
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125830
Bioaccumulation and glutathione S-transferase activity on Rhinella arenarum tadpoles after short-term exposure to antiretrovirals.
L. P. Fernández (2020)
10.3390/w12010305
Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in South Africa and Mozambique—Analysis of the Most Critical Pollutants for Drinking Purposes and Challenges in Water Treatment Selection
P. Verlicchi (2020)
10.1016/j.microc.2020.105315
Fluorescence-kinetic four-way data generation and modeling for abacavir determination in water samples
L. P. Fernández (2020)
10.1016/b978-0-12-819722-6.00008-0
Pharmaceuticals roles in microbial evolution
Bhoomika Yadav (2020)
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121067
Determination of selected antiretroviral drugs in wastewater, surface water and aquatic plants using hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.
Nomchenge Yamkelani Mlunguza (2019)
10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2018.12.205
Simultaneous quantification of commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs and their selected metabolites in aqueous environmental samples by direct injection and solid phase extraction liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.
T. Mosekiemang (2019)
10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109741
Analysis, occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in African water resources: A current status.
L. M. Madikizela (2019)
10.1080/09603123.2018.1548697
Hatching success and survival of fish early life stages in a chronic exposure to nevirapine: a case study of the Mozambique tilapia
U. Nibamureke (2019)
10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109752
Occurrence and treatment of contaminants of emerging concern in the African aquatic environment: Literature review and a look ahead.
K. K'oreje (2019)
10.1016/J.RSMA.2019.100675
Determination of naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen in Umgeni estuary and seawater: A case of northern Durban in KwaZulu–Natal Province of South Africa
N. P. Ngubane (2019)
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134322
Antiviral drugs in aquatic environment and wastewater treatment plants: A review on occurrence, fate, removal and ecotoxicity.
C. Nannou (2019)
10.4236/jep.2019.1012093
Toxicity for Aquatic Organisms of Antiretroviral Tenofovir Disoproxil
S. R. Silva (2019)
10.1016/j.teac.2019.e00071
Analytical strategies for the determination of antiviral drugs in the aquatic environment
C. Nannou (2019)
Endocrine disrupting effects of HIV antiretrovirals in the South African aquatic environment
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