Urine Metabolome Alterations In Malnutrition And The Impact Of Glycerol Or Rumen-protected Choline Chloride Supplementation In Advanced Pregnant Ewes.
Published 2020 · Medicine, Biology
The objective of this study was to explore the metabolic profiles of pregnancy malnutrition induced by feed restriction and the counteracting effects of glycerol and rumen-protected choline chloride supplementation. Two feeding trials were conducted. In the first experiment, twenty pregnant Hu sheep carrying multiple fetuses with a gestation period of 108 days were randomly divided into two groups. The ewes in control (CON) group were offered 100% of their nutritional requirements as recommended by National Research Council (NRC), while the feed restriction (FR) group were offered 30% of feed intake of CON for 15 days. In the second experiment, eighteen pregnant Hu sheep were offered a feed intake comprising 30% of the NRC-recommended nutritional requirements twice daily. The sheep were randomly divided into three groups: the feed restriction group in the second experiment (FR2), with no supplementation, the glycerol (GLY) group, which received 40 ml of glycerol per day, and the rumen-protected choline chloride (RPC) group, which received 10 g of rumen-protected choline chloride per day for 9 days. In the first experiment, urine metabolome of 16 ewes showed significant difference between the CON group and FR group. Compared with CON group, feed restriction decreased the level of D-glucose, lactic acid, levoglucosan, α-ketoglutarate, phosphohydroxypyruvic acid, glucose 6-phosphate, and the methyl donors, while increasing the level of pyruvate, fumaric acid, and carnitines in urine. Both the GLY and RPC counteracted some of these changes and modulated urine metabolome in advanced pregnant ewes suffering from malnutrition.