Construct Validity Of The Trail Making Test: Role Of Task-switching, Working Memory, Inhibition/interference Control, And Visuomotor Abilities.
Ignacio Sánchez-Cubillo, J. A. Periáñez, D. Adrover-Roig, José Manuel Rodríguez-Sánchez, M Ríos-Lago, Javier Tirapu, Francesca Barceló
Published 2009 · Psychology, Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
The aim of this study was to clarify which cognitive mechanisms underlie Trail Making Test (TMT) direct and derived scores. A comprehensive review of the literature on the topic was carried out to clarify which cognitive factors had been related to TMT performance. Following the review, we explored the relative contribution from working memory, inhibition/interference control, task-switching ability, and visuomotor speed to TMT performance. Forty-one healthy old subjects participated in the study and performed a battery of neuropsychological tests including the TMT, the Digit Symbol subtest [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Third Version) (WAIS-III)], a Finger Tapping Test, the Digits Forward and Backward subtests (WAIS-III), Stroop Test, and a task-switching paradigm inspired in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Correlation and regression analyses were used in order to clarify the joint and unique contributions from different cognitive factors to the prediction of TMT scores. The results suggest that TMT-A requires mainly visuoperceptual abilities, TMT-B reflects primarily working memory and secondarily task-switching ability, while B-A minimizes visuoperceptual and working memory demands, providing a relatively pure indicator of executive control abilities.
This paper references
Effects of visual acuity and visual motor speed and dexterity on cognitive test performance.
James M. Schear (1989)
RECONFIGURATION OF PROCESSING MODE PRIOR TO TASK PERFORMANCE
Nachshon Meiran (1996)
Trail making and cognitive set-shifting.
R D Olivera-Souza (2000)
Task Switching and Novelty Processing Activate a Common Neural Network for Cognitive Control
Francisco Barceló (2006)
Attention to action: Willed
D. Norman (1986)
Relationships between parts A and B of the Trail Making Test.
John D Corrigan (1987)
Trail Making Test: Manual for Administration and Scoring
Ralph M. Reitan (1992)
Cognitive correlates of HVOT performance differ between individuals with mild cognitive impairment and normal controls.
Angela L. Jefferson (2006)
Executive functions and motor performance
M D Lezak (1995)
1-year follow-up study of cognitive function in first-episode non-affective psychosis
José Manuel Rodríguez-Sánchez (2008)
Trail Making Test Errors and Executive Function in Schizophrenia and Depression
Roderick K. Mahurin (2006)
The Role of Speed of Processing, Inhibitory Mechanisms, and Presentation Order in Trail-Making Test Performance
T R Miner (1998)
A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary
Otfried Spreen (1991)
Construct validity of neuropsychological tests of conceptual and attentional abilities.
Jayne O'Donnell (1994)
Cognitive functioning in the early course of fi rst-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Timing and patterns
M Pérez-Iglesias (2006)
Cognitive Flexibility in the Normal Elderly and in Persons with Dementia as Measured by the Written and Oral Trail Making Tests
Agata Kowalczyk (2001)
Analysis of an Oral Paradigm for the Trail Making Test
Joseph H. Ricker (1994)
Attentional control and slowness of information processing after severe traumatic brain injury
Marcos José Solache Ríos (2004)
Trail Making Test in traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and normal ageing: sample comparisons and normative data.
José A. Periáñez (2007)
Derived Trail Making Test indices: A preliminary report.
Greg J. Lamberty (1994)
Attention to Action: Willed and Automatic Control of Behavior Technical Report No. 8006.
Donald A. Norman (1980)
Atten - tional control and slowness of information processing after severe traumatic brain injury
M. Ríos (2004)
Trail Making Test and visual search
W. H. Ehrenstein (1982)
Construct validity of various verbal and visual memory tests.
Glenn J. Larrabee (1995)
Handbook of Normative Data for Neuropsychological Assessment
Maura Mitrushina (1999)
Stroop: test de colores y palabras : manual
Charles J. Golden (1994)
Trail Making Test performance in a community-based sample of healthy very old adults: effects of age on completion time, but not on accuracy.
Tarja-Brita Robins Wahlin (1996)
Attention deficit disorder and methylphenidate: normalization rates, clinical effectiveness, and response prediction in 76 children.
Mark D. Rapport (1994)
A factor analytic investigation of the Trail Making Test
M G Groff (1981)
Measuring the mind speed, control, and age
John S. Duncan (2005)
The Trail Making Test, Part B: Cognitive Flexibility or Ability to Maintain Set?
Kathleen Bechtold Kortte (2002)
Improving the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment.
Naomi S Chaytor (2006)
An information theoretical approach to prefrontal executive function
Etienne Koechlin (2007)
The chronometrics of task-set control
Stephen Monsell (2005)
Can the task-cuing paradigm measure an endogenous task-set reconfiguration process?
Stephen Monsell (2006)
The differential contribution of mental tracking, cognitive flexibility, visual search, and motor speed to performance on parts A and B of the Trail Making Test.
Simon F. Crowe (1998)
Attention to action: Willed and automatic control
Donald A. Norman (1980)
The Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT): thresholds for speed of information processing as a function of stimulus modality and problem complexity.
Jérôme Royan (2004)
Trail Making Test, Part B as a Measure of Executive Control: Validation Using a Set-Switching Paradigm
Katherine D. Arbuthnott (2000)
Construct validity in the Trail Making Test: what makes Part B harder?
Elizabeth A. Gaudino (1995)
An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.
Earl K. Miller (2001)
"Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.
Marshal F. Folstein (1975)
Updating sensory versus task representations during task-switching: Insights from cognitive brain potentials in humans
Jose A. Periáñez (2009)
A task to manipulate attentional load, set-shifting, and inhibitory control: Convergent validity and test–retest reliability of the Parametric Go/No-Go Test
Scott A. Langenecker (2007)
WAIS-III: Escala de Inteligencia de Wechsler para Adultos III. Manual técnico
Nicolás Seisdedos Cubero (1999)
Spatiotemporal brain dynamics during preparatory set shifting: MEG evidence
Jose A. Periáñez (2004)
Construct Validity of Concepts of Attention in Healthy Controls and Patients with CHI
Jacoba M Spikman (2001)
Cognitive functioning in the early course of fi rst - episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders : Timing and patterns
M. G. Groff (2006)
This paper is referenced by
Clinical Significance of Fronto-Temporal Gray Matter Atrophy in Executive Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The VCOHP Study
Kazuhiko Tsuruya (2015)
Qigong exercise may improve sleep quality and gait performance in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study
Derek Jay Wassom (2015)
Heterogeneity in Trail Making Test performance in OEF/OIF/OND veterans with mild traumatic brain injury.
Nicholas S. Thaler (2013)
Insomnia with Short Sleep Duration: Nosological, Diagnostic, and Treatment Implications.
Alexandros N. Vgontzas (2013)
The Trail Making Test in Morocco: Normative Data Stratified by Age and Level of Education
Asmaa Oumellal (2018)
Poor coherence in older people’s speech is explained by impaired semantic and executive processes
Paul Hoffman (2018)
Driving Trail Making Test part B: a variant of the TMT-B
Sol Lee (2016)
Picture and spoken word presentation in repetition training for anomia: does stimulus order matter? Evidence obtained from 12 individuals with chronic aphasia using a computer-based telemedicine approach
Gian Daniele Zannino (2020)
The feasibility of using virtual reality to induce mobility-related anxiety during turning.
Tiphanie E. Raffegeau (2020)
Hearing Aid Use is Associated with Better Mini-Mental State Exam Performance.
Zhen Jason Qian (2016)
Effect of Cognitive Demand on Functional Visual Field Performance in Senior Drivers with Glaucoma
Viswa Gangeddula (2017)
Different cognitive functions discriminate gait performance in younger and older women: A pilot study.
Joaquin U Gonzales (2016)
Aging and performance on laboratory and naturalistic prospective memory tasks: The mediating role of executive flexibility and retrospective memory
Barbara Azzopardi (2015)
Diminished Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Activation in Patients on Opiate Maintenance Despite Normal Spatial Working Memory Task Performance
Patrick Bach (2012)
Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: child and adolescent profiles, diagnostic aids, cognitive markers and implications for the future DSM nomenclature
Sharnel Perera (2012)
Diagnostic methods used in searching for markers of atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis
Przemysław Puż (2018)
Trail Making Test : Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population
J. C. Arango-Lasprillaa (2015)
Older women take shorter steps during backwards walking and obstacle crossing
Tiphanie E. Raffegeau (2019)
Genetic analysis for cognitive flexibility in the trail-making test in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients from single nucleotide polymorphism, gene to pathway level
Kunlin Zhang (2017)
Title Anxiety Impacts Cognitive Inhibition in Remitted Anorexia Nervosa Permalink
Alice V Ely (2016)
Psychophysiological investigation of false memory in amnesiac patients
Yolanda Higueras (2014)
Feasibility Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Intervention for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Indonesians
Dharmayati Bambang Utoyo (2018)
Adult cognitive outcomes in phenylketonuria: explaining causes of variability beyond average Phe levels
Cristina Romani (2019)
Evaluation of school-based interventions of active breaks in primary schools: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Alice Masini (2019)
mGluR5 receptor availability is associated with lower levels of negative symptoms and better cognition in male patients with chronic schizophrenia
Cláudia Régio Brambilla (2020)
Exploring a Poorly Understood Variable: An Agenda for Classroom Research on the Age Factor.
David Singleton (2019)
The Effects of Combining Videogame Dancing and Pelvic Floor Training to Improve Dual-Task Gait and Cognition in Women with Mixed-Urinary Incontinence
A FraserSarah (2014)
Prospective analysis of neuropsychological deficits following resection of benign skull base meningiomas.
Klaus Zweckberger (2017)
Impact of Expression and Genetic Variation of microRNA-34b/c on Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Ning Sun (2020)
Developmental Foreign Accent Syndrome: Report of a New Case
Stefanie Keulen (2016)
Updating and not shifting predicts learning performance in young and middle-aged adults
Hieronymus J. M. Gijselaers (2017)
Outcome instruments in moderate-to-severe adult traumatic brain injury: recommendations for use in psychosocial research
Cynthia A. Honan (2019)See more