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Determination Of The Structure And Orientation Of Organic Molecules Tethered To Flat Graphitic Carbon By ATR-FT-IR And Raman Spectroscopy.

Franklin Anariba, U. Viswanathan, D. Bocian, R. McCreery
Published 2006 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Mono- and multilayers of nitroazobenzene (NAB), azobenzene (AB), nitrobiphenyl (NBP), biphenyl (BP), and fluorene (FL) were covalently bonded to flat pyrolyzed photoresist films (PPF) by electrochemical reduction of their diazonium derivatives. The structure and orientation of the molecular layers were probed with ATR-FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. A hemispherical germanium ATR element used with p-polarized light at 65 degrees incidence angle yielded high signal/noise IR spectra for monolayer coverage of molecules on PPF. The IR spectra are dominated by in-plane vibrational modes in the 1000-2000-cm(-1) spectral range but also exhibit weaker out-of-plane deformations in the 650-1000-cm(-1) region. The average tilt angle with respect to the surface normal for the various molecules varied from 31.0 +/- 4.5 degrees for NAB to 44.2 +/- 5.4 degrees for FL with AB, NBP, and BP exhibiting intermediate adsorption geometries. Raman intensity ratios of NAB and AB for p- and s-polarized incident light support the conclusion that the chemisorbed molecules are in a predominantly upright orientation. The results unequivocally indicate that molecules electroreduced from their diazonium precursors are not chemisorbed flat on the PPF surface, but rather at an angle, similar to the behavior of Au/thiol self-assembled monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett films, and porphyrin molecules chemisorbed thermally on silicon and PPF from alkyne and alkene precursors.
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