← Back to Search
The Expression Of The Myogenic Regulatory Factors In Denervated And Normal Muscles Of Different Phenotypes
E. H. Walters, N. Stickland, P. Loughna
Published 2004 · Biology, Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
The nerve is known to play a pivotal role in the diversification of muscle fibre types postnatally. Reducing neuronal activity in a slow muscle such as the soleus by denervation, switches on genes associated with a fast muscle phenotype. On the other hand, denervating a fast muscle such as the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) induces the conversion of fast fibres to a ‘slower’ contractile phenotype. The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) are proposed as the regulators of muscle phenotype as MyoD and myogenin have been shown to differentially accumulate in fast and slow muscle upon the induction of fibre type transformation. The denervation model has been used in the present study to induce changes in MRF expression in the muscles of the lower hindlimb which have distinct phenotypic characteristics. The level of MRF expression in pairs of denervated and innervated soleus, EDL, tibialis anterior (TA), plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles has been determined by Northern analysis and compared. The present study has shown that each muscle responds differently to denervation with respect to the increases in MRF expression. Fast muscles responded very quickly to denervation by increasing the level of MRF transcripts while slow muscles did not show significant increases in expression after 48 h denervation. The innervated EDL (fast) and soleus (slow) muscle differed with respect to the level of MRF-4 expressed, MRF-4 being expressed at higher levels in the slow muscle compared to the fast, suggesting that MRF-4 is important in the maintenance of a slow muscle phenotype. Moreover, MRF-4 and myogenin show the greatest fold increases in expression in the fast muscles examined. MyoD and Myf 5 show less dramatic increase in expression in response to denervation but exhibit the greatest fold increases in the fast muscles compared to slow.
This paper references
Interactions between motoneurones and muscles in respect of the characteristic speeds of their responses
A. Buller (1960)
Selective maintenance of neurotrophically regulated proteins in denervated rat diaphragm
U. Carraro (1979)
Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) accumulates in denervated and paralyzed skeletal muscles.
J. Covault (1985)
Overlapping functions of the myogenic bHLH genes MRF4 and MyoD revealed in double mutant mice.
A. Rawls (1998)
Muscle development: Electrical control of gene expression
S. Hughes (1998)
The Neurobiologic Mechanisms in Manipulative Therapy
W. Nimmer (1980)
Two myogenic regulatory factor transcripts exhibit muscle‐specific responses to disuse and passive stretch in adult rats
P. Loughna (1996)
The muscle regulatory gene, Myf-6, has a biphasic pattern of expression during early mouse development
E. Bober (1991)
Developmental regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
S. M. Schuetze (1987)
Invited review: Neural control of phenotypic expression in mammalian muscle fibers
D. Pette (1985)
The MyoD family of myogenic factors is regulated by electrical activity: isolation and characterization of a mouse Myf-5 cDNA.
A. Buonanno (1992)
Differential regulation of MyoD and myogenin mRNA levels by nerve induced muscle activity
V. Witzemann (1991)
Myogenin and MyoD join a family of skeletal muscle genes regulated by electrical activity.
R. Eftimie (1991)
A gene with homology to the myc similarity region of MyoD1 is expressed during myogenesis and is sufficient to activate the muscle differentiation program.
D. Edmondson (1989)
Identification of MRF4: a new member of the muscle regulatory factor gene family.
S. Rhodes (1989)
Differential expression of muscle regulatory factor genes in normal and denervated adult rat hindlimb muscles
S. Voytik (1993)
Id-1 as a possible transcriptional mediator of muscle disuse atrophy.
K. Gundersen (1994)
Disuse and passive stretch cause rapid alterations in expression of developmental and adult contractile protein genes in skeletal muscle.
P. Loughna (1990)
Denervation of newborn rat muscle does not block the appearance of adult fast myosin
GS Butler-Browne (1982)
Fiber-type composition of nine rat muscles. I. Changes during the first year of life.
C. Maltin (1989)
Passive stretch modulates denervation induced alterations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain mRNA levels
P. Loughna (1999)
Clenbuterol mimics effects of innervation on myogenic regulatory factor expression.
C. Maltin (1993)
Muscle deficiency and neonatal death in mice with a targeted mutation in the myogenin gene
P. Hasty (1993)
The growth and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle fibre types and the influence of birthweight.
S. Handel (1987)
Denervation of newborn rat muscles does not block the appearance of adult fast myosin heavy chain
G. Butler-Browne (1982)
Myogenic regulatory factors: dissecting their role and regulation during vertebrate embryogenesis.
D. Sassoon (1993)
MRF-4 exhibits fiber type- and muscle-specific pattern of expression in postnatal rat muscle.
E. H. Walters (2000)
Fast to slow transformation of denervated and electrically stimulated rat muscle
A. Windisch (1998)
Adaptation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, myogenin, and MRF4 gene expression to long-term muscle denervation
L. Adams (1995)
Selective accumulation of MyoD and myogenin mRNAs in fast and slow adult skeletal muscle is controlled by innervation and hormones.
S. Hughes (1993)
Expression of the muscle regulatory factor MRF4 during somite and skeletal myofiber development.
T. Hinterberger (1991)
Making muscle in mammals.
M. Buckingham (1992)
Myogenic regulation of mammalian skeletal muscle fibres.
J. F. Hoh (1991)
Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts
R. Davis (1987)
Myogenin gene disruption results in perinatal lethality because of severe muscle defect
Y. Nabeshima (1993)
The adaptive response of MyoD family proteins in overloaded, regenerating and denervated rat muscles.
K. Sakuma (1999)
Developmental and functional adaptation of contractile proteins in cardiac and skeletal muscles.
B. Swynghedauw (1986)
MyoD or Myf-5 is required for the formation of skeletal muscle
M. Rudnicki (1993)
Myogenin's functions do not overlap with those of MyoD or Myf-5 during mouse embryogenesis.
A. Rawls (1995)
Myosin subunit types in skeletal and cardiac tissues and their developmental distribution.
R. Whalen (1982)
Traumatized Nerves, Roots and Ganglia: Musculoskeletal Factors and Neuropathological Consequences
S. Sunderland (1978)
This paper is referenced by
A New Role for Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Muscle Mass and Muscle Cell Differentiation
V. Lecomte (2009)
Interaction between signalling pathways involved in skeletal muscle responses to endurance exercise
N. Koulmann (2005)
Enxerto venoso preenchido com gordura no reparo de nervo periférico: uma nova proposta
R. Júnior (2010)
Intramuscular Administration of the β2-Agonist, Formoterol, to Reduce MuscleAtrophy after Denervation
Ong Ajw (2020)
MRF4 gene expression in Xenopus embryos and aneural myofibers
Yeganeh Ataian (2003)
Expression of myogenic regulatory factors in rat skeletal muscles after denervation
M. Nikolić (2010)
Early changes in rat diaphragm biology with mechanical ventilation.
G. Rácz (2003)
De‐phosphorylation of MyoD is linking nerve‐evoked activity to fast myosin heavy chain expression in rodent adult skeletal muscle
M. Ekmark (2007)
A role of MRF4 and Myf-5 in regulation of adult muscle fiber type?
Anette Vefferstad (2010)
Effects of exercise training and doxorubicin on myogenic regulatory factors
Colin Quinn (2016)
Fiber-types of sarcomeric proteins expressed in cultured myogenic cells are modulated by the dose of myogenin activity.
Daisy Alapat (2009)
Exercise-induced signal transduction and gene regulation in skeletal muscle.
H. Wackerhage (2002)
MyoD- and nerve-dependent maintenance of MyoD expression in mature muscle fibres acts through the DRR/PRR element
Sophie B. P. Chargé (2007)
Dynamics of postdenervation atrophy of young and old skeletal muscles: differential responses of fiber types and muscle types.
E. Dedkov (2003)
Excitation-transcription coupling in skeletal muscle: the molecular pathways of exercise
K. Gundersen (2011)
Differences in the Function of Three Conserved E-boxes of the Muscle Creatine Kinase Gene in Cultured Myocytes and in Transgenic Mouse Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle*
Quynh-Giao V. Nguyen (2003)
The Expression Profile of Myogenic Transcription Factors in Satellite Cells from Denervated Rat Muscle
A. Maier (2002)
Expression of myogenic regulatory factors in the muscle-derived electric organ of Sternopygus macrurus
J. Kim (2008)
Caracterização morfológica, expressão dos fatores de regulação miogênica (MRFS) e dos receptores nicotínicos (NACHRS) no músculo estriado de ratos submetidos à restrição protéica materna
Ludmila Canuto Cabeço (2011)
Function of the myogenic regulatory factors Myf5, MyoD, Myogenin and MRF4 in skeletal muscle, satellite cells and regenerative myogenesis.
P. Zammit (2017)
Denervation and the Aging of Skeletal Muscle
B. Carlson (2004)
SREBP-1 Transcription Factors Regulate Skeletal Muscle Cell Size by Controlling Protein Synthesis through Myogenic Regulatory Factors
Kévin Dessalle (2012)
Dégénérescence et régénération des nerfs périphériques et des effecteurs musculaires et sensitifs: Degeneration and regeneration of both peripheral nerve and motor and sensory effectors
B. Coulet (2007)
Electrical stimulation based on chronaxie reduces atrogin‐1 and myoD gene expressions in denervated rat muscle
T. Russo (2007)
Molecular basis of skeletal muscle plasticity--from gene to form and function.
M. Flück (2003)
Oxygen concentration modulates the differentiation of muscle stem cells toward myogenic and adipogenic fates.
Zoe Redshaw (2012)
Muscle electrotransfer as a tool for studying muscle fiber-specific and nerve-dependent activity of promoters.
A. Bertrand (2003)
In vivo expression patterns of MyoD, p21, and Rb proteins in myonuclei and satellite cells of denervated rat skeletal muscle.
M. Ishido (2004)
Role of sphingolipids in muscle atrophy
Alessandra Zufferli (2011)
Altered Metabolic Homeostasis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Mechanisms of Energy Imbalance and Contribution to Disease Progression
Z. Ioannides (2016)
Sternopygus macrurus electric organ transcriptome and cell size exhibit insensitivity to short-term electrical inactivity
Robert Güth (2016)
Response and adaptation of skeletal muscle to denervation stress: the role of apoptosis in muscle loss.
P. Siu (2009)See more