Please confirm you are human
(

__Sign Up__for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

# Modeling Stress: A Methodological Review

S. Roesch

Published 2004 · Psychology, Medicine

Covariance structure modeling (CSM) is increasingly being utilized in stress research. For this reason, a methodological review was undertaken to assess how well applied researchers have recognized the shortcomings and recommendations commonly espoused in the mathematical and statistical CSM literature. In reviewing a broad cross section of research (n=50), many problems were noted. For example, data sets were rarely checked for nonnormality even though conventional CSM estimation procedures (e.g., maximum likelihood) are based on the assumption that the data come from multivariate normal distribution, equivalent models were neither evaluated nor even acknowledged, and the majority of favored models were modified based on empirical rather than theoretical considerations. The results suggest that applied stress researchers have inadequate knowledge of the technical CSM literature, which has potential ramifications for theory development.

This paper references

Structural equation modeling in clinical research [special section

R. H. Hoyle (1994)

10.1002/1520-6629(198210)10:4<363::AID-JCOP2290100407>3.0.CO;2-8

Stress, support, and depression: A longitudinal causal model

C. Aneshensel (1982)

10.1080/01688638808402800

An introduction to structural equation models.

D. Francis (1988)

Scaling corrections for chi-square statistics in covariance structure analysis

A. Satorra (1988)

10.2307/270849

Use of Null Models in Evaluating the Fit of Covariance Structure Models

M. Sobel (1985)

10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.174

Multivariate group comparisons of variable systems: MANOVA and structural equation modeling.

D. A. Cole (1993)

10.1002/per.2410050204

The role of personality and socio‐economic status in the stress–illness relation: A longitudinal study

A. Ranchor (1991)

10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

Comparative fit indexes in structural models.

P. Bentler (1990)

10.1080/10705519509540000

Effects of estimation methods, number of indicators per factor, and improper solutions on structural equation modeling fit indices

L. Ding (1995)

10.1177/0146167291176014

Social Psychological Influences on Sensation Seeking from Adolescence to Adulthood

A. Stacy (1991)

10.1007/BF01102761

Goodness of fit in confirmatory factor analysis: The effects of sample size and model parsimony

H. Marsh (1994)

10.1207/s15327906mbr1704_2

Multidimensional Scaling And Structural Equation Modeling: A Comparison Of Multivariate Techniques For Theory Testing.

D. Denison (1982)

10.1037/0033-2909.111.3.490

Model modifications in covariance structure analysis: the problem of capitalization on chance.

R. MacCallum (1992)

LISREL 5: Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships

D. orbom (1981)

10.1080/10705519409539961

A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state self‐esteem

R. Bagozzi (1994)

10.1177/0049124192021002005

Alternative Ways of Assessing Model Fit

M. Browne (1992)

10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513

Conservation of resources. A new attempt at conceptualizing stress.

S. Hobfoll (1989)

10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.664

Reassurance seeking, stress generation, and depressive symptoms: an integrative model.

J. Potthoff (1995)

Model specification: Procedures, strategies, and related issues.

R. MacCallum (1995)

Structural Equation Modeling with EQS

B M. (1994)

10.1037//0278-6133.13.6.471

A multidimensional measurement model for cardiovascular reactivity: Stability and cross-validation in two adult samples.

T. Kamarck (1994)

10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.260

Applications of Covariance Structure Modeling in Psychology: Cause for Concern?

S. Breckler (1990)

10.1037/0022-3514.50.5.906

Nuclear attitudes and reactions: associations with depression, drug use, and quality of life.

M. Newcomb (1986)

10.1037/0278-6133.11.1.32

Prenatal maternal stress and prematurity: a prospective study of socioeconomically disadvantaged women.

M. Lobel (1992)

10.1037/0022-0167.39.2.227

Causal Model of Stress and Coping: Women in Management.

B. Long (1992)

10.1111/J.1464-0597.1993.TB00724.X

Discriminant Validity of the Job‐related Tension Scale

V. González-romá (1993)

10.1016/0092-6566(89)90037-8

Predicting temperament-mental health relationships: A covariance structure latent variable analysis

M. Windle (1989)

10.1037/0021-843X.104.1.184

Alternative representations of war zone stressors: relationships to posttraumatic stress disorder in male and female Vietnam veterans.

D. King (1995)

10.2307/3151989

Structural Equation Modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows

G. Franke (1995)

10.1016/0165-0327(91)90058-Z

Transmission of symptoms of anxiety and depression in nuclear families.

K. Tambs (1991)

10.1177/0049124192021002002

Monte Carlo Evaluations of Goodness of Fit Indices for Structural Equation Models

David W. Gerbing (1992)

10.1002/JOB.4030100104

Antecedents and consequences of role stress: A covariance structure analysis

J. Schaubroeck (1989)

10.1177/002224378902600302

On the Use of Structural Equation Models in Experimental Designs

R. Bagozzi (1989)

10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.391

Goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis : The effect of sample size

H. Marsh (1988)

Covariance Structure Modeling in Personality and Social Psychological Research

M. Coovert (1990)

Evaluating model fit.

Li-tze Hu (1995)

10.1002/9781118619179

Structural Equations with Latent Variables

K. Bollen (1989)

10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.185

The problem of equivalent models in applications of covariance structure analysis.

R. MacCallum (1993)

10.1037/0033-2909.105.2.317

Analysis of correlation matrices using covariance structure models.

R. Cudeck (1989)

10.1080/10705519609540030

Viability of exploratory factor analysis as a precursor to confirmatory factor analysis

David W. Gerbing (1996)

Cross-Domain Analyses of Change Over Time: Combining Growth Modeling and Covariance Structure Analysis

J. Willett (1996)

EzPath: A Supplementary Module for SYSTAT and SYSGRAPH, SYSTAT

J. H. Steiger (1989)

Statistically-base d tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City, IA

J. H. Steiger (1980)

10.5860/choice.30-0601

Emotion and Adaptation

R. Lazarus (1991)

10.1016/0022-3999(96)00066-9

Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists

I. Deary (1996)

10.1080/00140138708969767

Shift work in health care.

L. Bosch (1987)

Testing Structural equation models

K. G. Jöreskog (1993)

10.1207/s15327906mbr2403_2

Model Modification in Covariance Structure Analysis: Application of the Expected Parameter Change Statistic.

D. Kaplan (1989)

10.2307/2076730

Latent Variables Analysis: Applications for Developmental Research.

A. Eye (1995)

10.1111/J.2044-8317.1984.TB00789.X

Asymptotically distribution-free methods for the analysis of covariance structures.

M. Browne (1984)

10.1037/0012-1649.29.2.368

Social Network and Marital Support as Mediators and Moderators of the Impact of Stress and Depression on Parental Behavior.

R. Simons (1993)

10.2307/2074955

Testing Structural Equation Models

K. Bollen (1993)

10.1007/BF01065485

Latent variable growth within behavior genetic models

J. J. McArdle (1986)

10.1016/0092-6566(88)90012-8

The impact of family context, deviant attitudes, and emotional distress on adolescent drug use: Longitudinal latent-variable analyses of mothers and their children

M. Newcomb (1988)

10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.738

Item Content Versus Item Wording: Disentangling Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity

E. K. Kelloway (1990)

10.2307/2137201

Social support from friends and psychological distress among elderly persons: moderator effects of age.

G. Matt (1993)

10.1177/0049124187016001004

Practical Issues in Structural Modeling

P. Bentler (1987)

10.1207/s15327906mbr2404_4

Single Sample Cross-Validation Indices for Covariance Structures.

M. Browne (1989)

A multidimensiona l

T. W. Kamarck (1994)

10.1177/07399863930154004

Development of the College Stress Inventory for Use with Hispanic Populations: A Confinnatory Analytic Approach

V. Solberg (1993)

10.1037//0021-9010.75.6.738

Item Content Versus Item Wording : Disentangling Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity

K. Kelloway (1990)

10.1016/0147-1767(87)90032-0

Behavioral dimensions of intercultural effectiveness: A replication and extension☆

M. Hammer (1987)

Evaluating model ® t

Hu (1995)

Statistically based tests for the number of common factors

J. Steiger (1980)

10.1037/0033-2909.100.1.107

SPECIFICATION SEARCHES IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE MODELING

R. MacCallum (1986)

10.1037/1064-1297.1.1-4.27

Delay of gratification, coping with stress, and substance use in adolescence.

E. Wagner (1993)

10.1207/s15327906mbr2803_3

Factors Influencing Cross-Validation of Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models.

D. Bandalos (1993)

10.1007/BF00937987

The use of structural equation modeling in generative research: Toward the design of a preventive intervention for bereaved children

Stephen G. West (1991)

Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis.

A. Satorra (1994)

Structural equation models with non-normal variables: Problems and remedies

S. West (1995)

10.1080/10705519509540009

Modeling the processes of development via latent variable growth curve methodology

Terry E. Duncan (1995)

Model modi® cation in covariance structure analysis: Application of the expected

D. Kaplan (1989)

Social network and marital support as mediators and moderators of the impact of stress and depression on parental behaviors

R. L. Simons (1993)

10.1037//0022-3514.62.2.257

Social support, depressed mood, and adjustment to stress: a genetic epidemiologic investigation.

R. Kessler (1992)

10.1111/J.2044-8279.1995.TB01130.X

A structural model of the dimensions of teacher stress.

G. Boyle (1995)

10.1177/0049124189017003004

A New Incremental Fit Index for General Structural Equation Models

K. Bollen (1989)

10.1111/J.1467-8624.1994.TB00846.X

Coping, stress, and the psychological symptoms of children of divorce: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

I. Sandler (1994)

10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.351

Can test statistics in covariance structure analysis be trusted?

L. Hu (1992)

10.1037/0022-3514.68.3.455

Provision and receipt of social support and disregard: what is their impact on the marital life quality of infertile and fertile couples?

A. Abbey (1995)

10.1007/BF02294210

A general structural equation model with dichotomous, ordered categorical, and continuous latent variable indicators

B. Muthén (1984)

Theory testing in personality and social psychology with structural equation models: A primer in 20 questions.

J. S. Tanaka (1990)

Goodness-of- ® t indices in con® rmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size and model complexity

H. W. Marsh (1994)

PRELIS: A Program for Multivariate Data Screening and Data Summarization

D. orbom (1988)

10.1080/10705519509540017

Issues in applied structural equation modeling research

T. Raykov (1995)

10.1037//0021-9010.77.3.322

Dispositional affect and work-related stress.

J. Schaubroeck (1992)

10.1037//0022-3514.68.3.455

Provision and receipt of social support and disregard: what is their impact on the marital life quality of infertile and fertile couples?

A. Abbey (1995)

10.1037/0882-7974.6.4.499

Reporting structural equation modeling results in Psychology and Aging: some proposed guidelines.

T. Raykov (1991)

10.2307/2137333

Parents' stressful life events and adolescent depressed mood.

X. Ge (1994)

10.1037//0033-2909.114.1.185

The problem of equivalent models in applications of covariance structure analysis.

R. MacCallum (1993)

10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_1

Evaluating and Modifying Covariance Structure Models: A Review and Recommendation.

D. Kaplan (1990)

Signi® cance tests and goodness of ® t in the analysis

Angeles (1980)

10.1207/S15374424JCCP2201_2

Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised: Factor Structure and Concurrent Validity

A. L. Greca (1993)

Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models

J. S. Tanaka (1993)

10.1111/J.1467-8624.1987.TB03496.X

Robust Structural Equation Models: Implications for Developmental Psychology.

G. Huba (1987)

10.1037/0022-006X.62.3.427

Introduction to the special section: structural equation modeling in clinical research.

R. Hoyle (1994)

10.1111/J.1467-6494.1988.TB00472.X

Self-discrepancies as predictors of vulnerability to distinct syndromes of chronic emotional distress.

T. Strauman (1988)

10.1080/10705519609540036

Theoretical and technical contributions to structural equation modeling: An updated annotated bibliography

J. T. Austin (1996)

Inference Problems With Equivalent Models

L. J. Williams (1996)

10.1177/073428299201000106

An Extension of the Norms for the Stress Response Scale for Children

M. Shermis (1992)

10.2307/1130296

"How Big Is Big Enough?": Sample Size and Goodness of Fit in Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables.

J. S. Tanaka (1987)

10.1037/0022-3514.68.1.138

Integrating top-down and bottom-up structural models of subjective well-being: A longitudinal investigation.

G. Feist (1995)

A structural equation model of factors

J. King (1992)

10.2307/2136846

A multivariate model of the determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents.

F. Castro (1987)

Behavior of some elliptical theory estimators with nonnormal data in a covariance structures framework: A Monte Carlo study.

L. Harlow (1986)

10.1037/1064-1297.1.1-4.215

Effects of adolescent drug use on adult mental health: A prospective study of a community sample.

M. Newcomb (1993)

10.1037/0022-3514.46.3.621

Confirmatory hierarchical factor analyses of psychological distress measures.

J. S. Tanaka (1984)

10.1177/014662169401800208

Book Review: Structural Equation Modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming

B. Byrne (1994)

Statistical power in structural equation modeling.

D. kaplan (1995)

10.1080/00140138708969766

Office health hazards: an annotated bibliography.

A. Hedge (1987)

Multifaceted conceptions of ® t in structural equation models

J. S. Tanaka (1993)

10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.467

Factoring items and factoring scales are different: Spurious evidence for multidimensionality due to item categorization.

Ira H. Bernstein (1989)

10.1037/0022-3514.49.2.481

Race and vulnerability to stress: an examination of differential vulnerability.

J. Neff (1985)

10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Significance Tests and Goodness of Fit in the Analysis of Covariance Structures

P. Bentler (1980)

10.1300/J023V06N03_04

A Structural Equation Model of Factors Related to Substance Use Among American Indian Adolescents

J. King (1992)

10.1177/0013164488482025

Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Validation and Revision of a Teacher Stress Inventory

R. Schutz (1988)

10.1007/BF01065881

Testing structural equation models for twin data using LISREL

A. Heath (1989)

10.1080/10705519409539977

Causation issues in structural equation modeling research

Heather E. Bullock (1994)

10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.430

EVALUATION OF GOODNESS-OF-FIT INDICES FOR STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS

S. Mulaik (1989)

10.2307/2286831

Introduction to Structural Equation Models.

S. Fienberg (1975)

10.1111/J.2044-8341.1994.TB01801.X

Psychological distress and neuroticism: a two-wave panel study.

D. Cramer (1994)

Applied Multilevel Analysis.

J. Hox (1995)

10.1176/AJP.152.1.102

Attempted suicide among Vietnam veterans: a model of etiology in a community sample.

A. Fontana (1995)

10.1037/0278-6133.8.2.175

Support, stress, and recovery from coronary heart disease: a longitudinal causal model.

A. Fontana (1989)

10.1037//0278-6133.14.3.223

The examination of myofascial face pain and its relationship to psychological distress among women.

A. Zautra (1995)

10.1177/0049124190019001001

Simulation Studies of the Reliability of Computer-Aided Model Specification Using the TETRAD II, EQS, and LISREL Programs

P. Spirtes (1990)

10.1016/0092-6566(92)90046-7

A two-domain model of well-being: Everyday events, social support, and gender-related personality factors

Linda Gannon (1992)

10.1016/0191-8869(89)90125-6

Anxiety and self-concept as antecedents of stress and coping: a longitudinal study with German and Turkish adolescents

M. Jerusalem (1989)

TETRAD II : tools for causal modeling

R. Scheines (1994)

10.1007/bf00974318

A causal model of the etiology of war-related PTSD

A. Fontana (1993)

Life stress and illness: Formulations of the issues

B. S. Dohrenwend (1984)

Writing about structural equation models.

R. Hoyle (1995)

10.1111/J.2044-8341.1988.TB02767.X

A structural model approach toward the development of a theory of the link between stress and mental health

C. Cooper (1988)

10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.687

Does hardiness contribute to mental health during a stressful real-life situation? The roles of appraisal and coping.

V. Florian (1995)

10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.247

Choosing a multivariate model: Noncentrality and goodness of fit.

R. Mcdonald (1990)

The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues.

R. Hoyle (1995)

Goodness of ® t with categorical and nonnormal variables

B. O. en (1993)

Nonpositive de® nite matrices in structural models

W. Wothke (1993)

Comparative Fit Indices in Structural Models

P. M. Bentler (1990)

10.1016/S0272-7757(97)80188-4

Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods: and. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992. (ISBN 0-8039-4627-9), pp. xvi + 265. Price: U.S. $45.00 (cloth)

Russell W. Rumberger (1997)

10.1007/BF02291170

A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis

L. Tucker (1973)

EQS : structural equations program manual

P. Bentler (1989)

10.2307/2075823

Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods

S. Raudenbush (1992)

10.1037/0033-2909.119.1.166

Latent Variable Interaction and Quadratic Effect Estimation: A Two-Step Technique Using Structural Equation Analysis

Ping. (1996)

10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.552

Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: two approaches for exploring measurement invariance.

S. Reise (1993)

10.1007/BF00931239

The role of risk and protective factors in predicting symptomatology in adolescent self-identified children of alcoholic parents

M. Roosa (1990)

10.1207/S15324834BASP0902_4

Nuclear Anxiety and Psychological Functioning Among Young Adults

M. Newcomb (1988)

An evaluation of incremental fit indices: A clarification of mathematical and empirical properties.

H. Marsh (1996)

10.1006/JVBE.1995.1004

Personality Similarity and Work-Related Outcomes among African-American Nursing Personnel: A Test of the Supplementary Model of Person-Environment Congruence.

D. V. Day (1995)

10.1080/08917779008248754

Conceptualizing stress to study effects on health: Environmental, perceptual, and emotional components

M. Lobel (1990)

10.1037/0033-2909.117.2.348

Measurement error in the analysis of interaction effects between continuous predictors using multiple regression: Multiple indicator and structural equation approaches.

J. Jaccard (1995)

LISCOMP: Analysis of Linear Structural Equations Using a Comprehensive Measurement ModelÐ User’s Guide, Scienti® c Software, Mooresville, IN

B. O. en (1987)

This paper is referenced by

10.1016/S1479-3601(04)05008-8

STATISTICS AND THE ART OF MODEL CONSTRUCTION

R. Vickers (2004)

10.1177/070674370905400305

A Measure of Daily Distress in Practising Medicine

R. Lepnurm (2009)

10.1108/02683941111181752

Cognitive hardiness, appraisal and coping: comparing two transactional models

M. Cash (2011)

10.1080/02699930341000248

A meta‐analytic review of help giving and aggression from an attributional perspective: Contributions to a general theory of motivation

U. Rudolph (2004)

10.3390/rs10020218

An Investigation of Ice Surface Albedo and Its Influence on the High-Altitude Lakes of the Tibetan Plateau

Jiahe Lang (2018)

Factors associated with career satisfaction among general practitioners in Canada.

R. Lepnurm (2007)

10.1016/J.JPSYCHORES.2007.05.002

Relationships with clinical staff after a diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with patients' experience of care and abuse in childhood.

P. Salmon (2007)

Equivalent models in the context of latent curve analysis

Diane Losardo (2009)

10.2224/SBP.2005.33.3.259

The influence of pessimistic explanatory style on the relation between stressful life events and hospital doctors' psychological distress

D. Clarke (2005)

10.1177/2050312116643907

The effects of distress and the dimensions of coping strategies on physicians’ satisfaction with competence

R. Lepnurm (2016)

Die Überprüfung der transaktionalen Stresstheorie im Lehramtsreferendariat

O. Christ (2005)

10.1177/070674370605100406

Factors Explaining Career Satisfaction among Psychiatrists and Surgeons in Canada

R. Lepnurm (2006)