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A Meta-analytic Review Of Experiments Examining The Effects Of Extrinsic Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation.

E. Deci, R. Koestner, R. Ryan
Published 1999 · Psychology, Medicine

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A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
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Same for verbal rewards Nearly the same for engagement-contingent. C & P excluded the two performance-contingent rewards groups
Participants received $.25 for each anagram completed, which makes the study completion-contingent, but C & P coded it performance-contingent
Context Link
Ovid: A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects o
Same for the two unexpected groups and the engagement-contingent group, but C & P excluded the performance-contingent group
References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analyses
EXTRINSIC REWARDS AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Same for self-report. C & P imputed a score of 0.00 for free-choice performance, even though means and significance tests were reported
Rewards were given "simply for participating in the study" (p. 364), which makes it task-noncontingent, but C & P coded it engagement-contingent. Excluded, Type I. Excluded, Type II
Type I. In this study, there was also a condition called positive feedback, but the statements were not competence feedback
Dt
UWA Library Holdings Bibliographic Links [Context Link
Type III
F Excluded
Type II
F Excluded
Social cognition and social development (pp. 294–330)
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S Participants got a $1 reward for completing 15 puzzles, making the study completioncontingent , but C & P coded it engagement-contingent
Same coding, but C & P made an error in the self-report effect size for performancecontingent , showing it as enhancement when in fact it was undermining with a d = -0
For comparability with other studies, we used only data from the 10-day assessments
Type I Excluded



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