Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Wording Effects And The Factor Structure Of The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12).

J. G. Molina, M. F. Rodrigo, J. Losilla, J. Vives
Published 2014 · Psychology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has become a popular screening instrument with which to measure general psychological health in different settings. Previous studies into the factorial structure of the GHQ-12 have mainly supported multifactor solutions, and only a few recent works have shown that the GHQ-12 was best represented by a single substantive factor when method effects associated with negatively worded items were considered. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to compare competing measurement models from previous research, including correlated traits-correlated methods and correlated traits-correlated uniquenesses approaches, to obtain further evidence about the factorial structure of the GHQ-12. This goal was achieved with data from 3,050 participants who completed the GHQ-12 included in the Catalonian Survey of Working Conditions (Catalonian Labor Relations and Quality of Work Department, 2012). The results showed additional evidence that the GHQ-12 has a unidimensional structure after controlling for method effects associated with negatively worded items. Furthermore, we found evidence for our hypothesis about the spurious nature of the 3-factor solution in Graetz's (1991) model after comparing its fit with that found for alternative models resulting from different combinations of the negatively worded items. An implication of our results is that future research about the factor structure of the GHQ-12 should take method effects associated with negative wording into account in order to avoid reaching inaccurate conclusions about its dimensionality.
This paper references
10.1111/j.1600-0447.1994.tb01620.x
Reliability, validity and factor structure of the 12‐item General Health Questionnaire among young males in Italy
P. Politi (1994)
Versiones en lengua española validadas [ Validated Spanish - language versions ]
A. Lobo (1996)
10.1007/s00787-004-0345-7
Measurement invariance in the General Health Questionnaire-12 in young Australian adolescents
D. J. French (2004)
The detection of psychiatric illness
D. P. 1989 Goldberg (1972)
10.1046/j.1440-1614.2003.01133.x
Validity and Psychometric Properties of the General Health Questionnaire-12 in Young Australian Adolescents
R. Tait (2003)
10.3109/00048678909062592
The General Health Questionnaire: Reliability and Validity for Australian Youth
H. Winefield (1989)
10.1037/1040-3590.17.2.231
Alternative factor models and factorial invariance of the GHQ-12: a large sample analysis using confirmatory factor analysis.
M. Shevlin (2005)
10.1007/s11136-012-0133-7
The factor structure of the GHQ-12: the interaction between item phrasing, variance and levels of distress
A. Smith (2012)
10.1186/1745-0179-4-10
The factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): the result of negative phrasing?
M. Hankins (2008)
The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire
D. Goldberg (1972)
Segunda Encuesta Catalana de Condiciones de Trabajo [Second Catalonian Survey of Working Conditions]
10.1037/a0019225
Longitudinal tests of competing factor structures for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: traits, ephemeral artifacts, and stable response styles.
H. Marsh (2010)
10.1007/s12529-008-9021-5
The Factor Structure and Factorial Invariance for the Decisional Balance Scale for Adolescent Smoking
B. Guo (2009)
10.1002/pon.1989
Using the 12‐item General Health Questionnaire to screen psychological distress from survivorship to end‐of‐life care: dimensionality and item quality
W. Gao (2012)
Segunda Encuesta Catalana de Condiciones de Trabajo [Second Catalonian Survey of Working Conditions
Catalonian Labor Relations (2012)
10.1007/BF00782952
Multidimensional properties of the General Health Questionnaire
B. Graetz (2004)
Factors defined by negatively keyed
N. Schmitt (1985)
10.1017/S0033291700012502
The General Health Questionnaire: a psychometric analysis using latent trait theory.
D. Andrich (1989)
10.1111/J.2044-8325.1980.TB00024.X
The use of the General Health Questionnaire as an indicator of mental health in occupational studies.
M. Banks (1980)
10.1007/s11136-011-0038-x
Confirmatory factor analysis of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in Spanish adolescents
Alicia Padrón (2011)
10.1371/journal.pone.0034881
Wording Effects and the Factor Structure of the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale in HIV/AIDS Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in South Africa
E. Wouters (2012)
A user's guide to the General Health Questionnaire
David Goldberg (1988)
10.1080/00223891.2011.645936
Method Effects: The Problem With Negatively Versus Positively Keyed Items
M. Lindwall (2012)
Women, Men and Working Conditions in Europe: A Report Based on the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey
Eurofound (2013)
Summated rating scale construction
P. Spector (1991)
10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452
Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it.
P. M. Podsakoff (2012)
10.1186/1477-7525-2-63
Does the 12-item General Health Questionnaire contain multiple factors and do we need them?
F. Gao (2004)
10.3200/SOCP.148.5.535-552
An Examination of the Wording Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Among Culturally Chinese People
Chia-huei Wu (2008)
10.1207/S15328007SEM1003_6
Wording Effects in Self-Esteem Scales: Methodological Artifact or Response Style?
P. Horan (2003)
10.1002/smi.1420
The factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a literate Kenyan population.
A. Abubakar (2012)
10.1037/1082-989X.7.2.228
A critique of the correlated trait-correlated method and correlated uniqueness models for multitrait-multimethod data.
C. Lance (2002)
10.1080/10705519909540120
Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale: Two Factors or Method Effects.
J. Tomás (1999)
10.1016/j.psychres.2009.07.003
The factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with traumatic brain injury
M. Schönberger (2010)
10.1177/1073191110388146
Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women
J. Aguado (2012)
10.1207/s15328007sem1301_5
Correlates of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Method Effects
L. Quilty (2006)
10.1037/0022-3514.70.4.810
Positive and negative global self-esteem: a substantively meaningful distinction or artifactors?
H. Marsh (1996)
Propiedades psicométricas y valores normativos del General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) en población general española
K. Rocha (2011)
10.1037/1040-3590.18.4.444
The factor structure and factorial invariance of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) across time: evidence from two community-based samples.
Anne Mäkikangas (2006)
10.1207/s15328007sem1303_6
Further Investigating Method Effects Associated With Negatively Worded Items on Self-Report Surveys
C. Distefano (2006)
10.1016/J.PAID.2008.09.027
Factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): The role of wording effects
Shengquan Ye (2009)
Summated Rating Scale Construction An Introduction
R. Kirk (2009)
Validity and psychometric
tion. Newbury Park (2003)
10.1111/J.1467-9450.2006.00551.X
A comparative assessment of the factor structures and psychometric properties of the GHQ-12 and the GHQ-20 based on data from a Finnish population-based sample.
Varpu Penninkilampi-Kerola (2006)
Wording effects
P. M. Horan (2003)
10.1177/014662168500900405
Factors Defined by Negatively Keyed Items: The Result of Careless Respondents?
N. Schmitt (1985)
10.1027/1015-5759.23.1.2
A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the GHQ12 Using a Large Australian Sample
Alistair Campbell (2007)
Alternative factor models and facto
M. 07.003 Shevlin (2005)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/mpr.1532
Cross‐cultural measurement invariance of the General Health Questionnaire‐12 in a German and a Colombian population sample
M. Romppel (2017)
10.1037/pas0000743
Health-Related Quality-of-Life Assessment in Dementia: Evidence of Cross-Cultural Validity in Latin America
Kia-Chong Chua (2019)
10.1186/s40545-019-0175-0
Patient involvement in questionnaire design: tackling response error and burden
Marissa Ayano Mes (2019)
The harmonisation of stroke datasets: A case study of four UK datasets
T. Munyombwe (2016)
10.22199/S07187475.2016.0001.00004
Estructura factorial del cuestionario de salud general GHQ-12 en población general de México // Factor structure of the GHQ-12 general health questionnaire in mexican population
P. Solís-Cámara (2016)
10.1007/978-3-319-93003-9_5
Screening for Behavioral Health Problems in Adult Primary Care
M. Byrd (2018)
10.1177/1079063216672172
Relationship Between Sexual Abuse in Childhood and the Occurrence of Mental Illness in Adulthood: A Matched Case–Control Study in Nigeria
C. Okeafor (2016)
10.1037/pas0000323
The Cultural Fairness of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire Among Diverse Adolescents
Anica G Bowe (2017)
10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01774
Factor Structures of General Health Questionnaire-12 Within the Number of Kins Among the Rural Residents in China
Ming Guan (2019)
10.1016/J.JACCEDU.2019.01.002
An examination of the psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC10) among accounting and business students
K. Smith (2019)
10.1186/1471-2458-14-1238
Positive versus negative mental health in emerging adulthood: a national cross-sectional survey
R. Winzer (2014)
10.1016/J.LINDIF.2015.03.025
Conditional effects of mastery goal structure on changes in students' motivational beliefs: Need for cognition matters
D. L. Gray (2015)
10.1037/pspp0000280
The situation six: Uncovering six basic dimensions of psychological situations from the Hebrew language.
S. Oreg (2020)
The Role of Non-Cognitive Skills in Students' Academic Performance and Life Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Resilience
R. Yang (2014)
Aspects of positive and negative mental health in young people, aged 16-29 years : measurements, determinants, and interventions
Regina Winzer (2019)
10.1080/17437199.2018.1426484
The structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): two meta-analytic factor analyses
Timo Gnambs (2018)
10.1016/J.RCPENG.2017.05.016
Common Mental Disorders and Associated Factors in Dental Students From Cartagena, Colombia.
Katherine M Arrieta-Vergara (2019)
10.1176/APPI.PS.201100344
Level of mental health intervention and clinical need among inmates with mental illness in five English jails.
L. Hassan (2012)
10.1016/J.PAID.2018.10.015
The core self-evaluation scale: A replication of bi-factor dimensionality, reliability, and criterion validity
T. Henderson (2019)
10.1590/0102-311X00122913
¿Afecta la forma de puntuación la estructura factorial del GHQ-12? Estudio exploratorio en estudiantes iberoamericanos
A. Urzúa (2015)
10.1186/s12874-016-0158-7
An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress: combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research
J. Stochl (2016)
10.1590/1413-82712019240309
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Method Effect and Gender Invariance
Tiago Jessé Souza de Lima (2019)
10.1186/s12913-018-3381-6
The factor structure of the general health questionnaire (GHQ12) in Saudi Arabia
A. El-Metwally (2018)
10.15700/SAJE.V38N1A1358
Learner-to-teacher bullying as a potential factor influencing teachers’ mental health
Marit Helen Woudstra (2018)
10.1177/0020872817695642
The effects of a community mental health intervention project upon family caregivers of persons with suspected mental illness in the Chinese cultural context
P. Ng (2018)
10.1186/s12955-019-1255-1
Developing item banks to measure three important domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Singapore
E. J. Uy (2020)
10.1080/00223891.2016.1217420
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Method Effects, Factorial Structure and Scale Invariance Across Migrant Child and Urban Child Populations in China
Yang Wu (2017)
10.1080/01443410.2019.1672038
Student self-assessment: why do they do it?
Z. Yan (2020)
10.7705/biomedica.v37i3.3240
Construct validity and internal consistency of three factor structures and two scoring methods of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire.
Miguel Simancas-Pallares (2017)
10.1080/09639284.2019.1700140
Resilience as a coping strategy for reducing departure intentions of accounting students
K. J. Smith (2020)
10.1186/s12888-017-1253-y
Reliability and validity of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) for male tannery workers: a study carried out in Kanpur, India
G. C. Kashyap (2017)
10.1007/s10964-017-0648-x
Wisdom Gained? Assessing Relationships Between Adversity, Personality and Well-Being Among a Late Adolescent Sample
Eranda Jayawickreme (2017)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar