Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

A Multisite Randomized Trial Of Normative Feedback For Heavy Drinking: Social Comparison Versus Social Comparison Plus Correction Of Normative Misperceptions.

C. Neighbors, Melissa A. Lewis, J. Labrie, Angelo M DiBello, C. M. Young, D. Rinker, D. Litt, L. Rodriguez, C. Knee, Ezekiel Hamor, Jessica M. Jerabeck, M. Larimer
Published 2016 · Psychology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
OBJECTIVE Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. METHOD Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from 3 universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months postbaseline. RESULTS Primary analyses examined differences across 4 drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at 3- and 6-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at 3 months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on 6-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at 3 months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at 3 months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and 6-month perceived norms. CONCLUSIONS The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy.
This paper references
10.15288/JSAD.2009.70.924
Perceived behavioral alcohol norms predict drinking for college students while studying abroad.
E. Pedersen (2009)
10.1080/13576500444000029
Feeling Controlled and Drinking Motives Among College Students: Contingent Self-Esteem as a Mediator
C. Neighbors (2004)
10.1023/A:1013682727356
Making the Transition from High School to College: The Role of Alcohol-Related Social Influence Factors in Students' Drinking
J. Read (2002)
10.1037/0893-164X.18.4.334
Gender-specific misperceptions of college student drinking norms.
Melissa A. Lewis (2004)
Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention
Berkowitz (2004)
10.15288/JSA.1997.58.358
The reliability of Form 90: an instrument for assessing alcohol treatment outcome.
J. S. Tonigan (1997)
Individual-Focused Approaches to the Prevention of College Student Drinking
J. M. Cronce (2011)
10.15288/JSA.2005.66.470
Misperceiving the college drinking norm and related problems: a nationwide study of exposure to prevention information, perceived norms and student alcohol misuse.
H. W. Perkins (2005)
10.1027/1016-9040.1.1.34
Risk Perception and Self-Protective Behavior
J. Pligt (1996)
10.1037/a0031174
Personalized feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: an update of Walters & Neighbors (2005).
M. Miller (2013)
10.1037/a0030653
Alcohol expectancies, perceived norms, and drinking behavior among college students: examining the reciprocal determinism hypothesis.
Jeffrey D Wardell (2013)
10.1037/0022-006X.53.2.189
Social determinants of alcohol consumption: the effects of social interaction and model status on the self-administration of alcohol.
R. L. Collins (1985)
10.1037/0033-2909.102.1.72
Ten years of research on the false-consensus effect: an empirical and theoretical review
Gary Marks (1987)
10.1177/0146167292181014
Social Projection and Social Conformity in Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Analysis
Gary Marks (1992)
10.1080/07448481.1992.10392818
Assessing alcohol problems in college students.
S. Hurlbut (1992)
Timeline followback user's guide: A calendar method for assessing alcohol and drug use
LC. Sobell (1996)
10.1080/07448489909595656
Misperceptions of the norms for the frequency of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses.
H. W. Perkins (1999)
10.1037/0022-3514.64.2.243
Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: some consequences of misperceiving the social norm.
D. Prentice (1993)
10.15288/JSAS.2002.S14.164
Social norms and the prevention of alcohol misuse in collegiate contexts.
H. W. Perkins (2002)
10.1177/001872675400700202
A Theory of Social Comparison Processes
L. Festinger (1954)
10.1037/a0020766
Efficacy of web-based personalized normative feedback: a two-year randomized controlled trial.
C. Neighbors (2010)
10.1016/J.ADDBEH.2004.12.005
Feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: what, why and for whom?
S. Walters (2005)
10.1080/08870446.2011.620106
Projection, conformity and deviance regulation: A prospective study of alcohol use
R. Ferrer (2012)
10.1016/J.ADDBEH.2007.06.019
Indicated prevention for incoming freshmen: personalized normative feedback and high-risk drinking.
Melissa A. Lewis (2007)
10.15288/JSAD.2007.68.556
Are social norms the best predictor of outcomes among heavy-drinking college students?
C. Neighbors (2007)
10.1017/CBO9780511609220.014
Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk Econometrica 47
D. Kahneman (1979)
10.1080/10413201003666454
Reducing Heavy Drinking Among First Year Intercollegiate Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Normative Feedback
D. Doumas (2010)
10.12746/swrccc2015.0310.135
Negative Binomial Regression
Joseph Hilbe (2007)
10.1037/H0093718
Studies of independence and conformity: I. A minority of one against a unanimous majority.
S. Asch (1956)
10.1037/0893-164X.8.1.43
Effects of college residence on perceived norms for alcohol consumption: An examination of the first year in college.
J. Baer (1994)
Health Images and Their Effects on Health Behavior
Bram P. Buunk (2013)
10.15288/JSA.2006.67.290
Normative misperceptions and temporal precedence of perceived norms and drinking.
C. Neighbors (2006)
10.1037/0022-006X.58.6.805
Secondary prevention with college drinkers: evaluation of an alcohol skills training program.
D. Kivlahan (1990)
10.15288/JSAD.2007.68.228
Optimizing personalized normative feedback: the use of gender-specific referents.
Melissa A. Lewis (2007)
10.1037/a0032235
The efficacy of single-component brief motivational interventions among at-risk college drinkers.
M. Martens (2013)
10.1037//0893-164X.15.4.321
Differential utility of three indexes of risky drinking for predicting alcohol problems in college students.
B. Borsari (2001)
10.3200/JACH.54.4.213-218
Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback
Melissa A. Lewis (2006)
10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.01.008
A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of two active conditions of a brief intervention for heavy college drinkers.
M. Kulesza (2013)
10.1080/01973533.2012.693357
Drinking to Fit in: Examining the Need to Belong as a Moderator of Perceptions of Best Friends’ Alcohol Use and Related Risk Cognitions Among College Students
D. Litt (2012)
10.1016/J.ADDBEH.2007.05.004
Individual-level interventions to reduce college student drinking: a meta-analytic review.
K. Carey (2007)
10.1037/0022-006X.72.3.434
Targeting misperceptions of descriptive drinking norms: efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention.
C. Neighbors (2004)
10.1037/a0018302
Examining the associations among severity of injunctive drinking norms, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related negative consequences: the moderating roles of alcohol consumption and identity.
Melissa A. Lewis (2010)
10.15288/JSA.1991.52.580
Biases in the perception of drinking norms among college students.
J. Baer (1991)
10.1002/9780470753552.CH5
A Social Reaction Model of Adolescent Health Risk
F. Gibbons (2009)
Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis
R. Rosenthal (1984)
Preventing alcohol abuse in college students: A harm-reduction approach.
G. Marlatt (1995)
Health images and their effects on health behavior
FX. Gibbons (1997)
10.15288/JSADS.2009.S16.131
Alcohol screening and brief intervention in a college student health center: a randomized controlled trial.
James F Schaus (2009)
10.15288/JSA.2003.64.331
Descriptive and injunctive norms in college drinking: a meta-analytic integration.
B. Borsari (2003)
PROCESS : A Versatile Computational Tool for Observed Variable Mediation , Moderation , and Conditional Process Modeling 1
A. Hayes (2012)
10.1037/a0034087
RCT of web-based personalized normative feedback for college drinking prevention: are typical student norms good enough?
J. Labrie (2013)



This paper is referenced by
10.1186/s12936-019-2798-7
Social norms, misperceptions, and mosquito net use: a population-based, cross-sectional study in rural Uganda
J. Perkins (2019)
10.1111/add.15263
Computer-Delivered Brief Alcohol Intervention for Patients with Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Michael A Cucciare (2020)
10.4309/JGI.2020.44.8
Gambling Data and Modalities of Interaction for Responsible Online Gambling: A Qualitative Study
George Drosatos (2020)
10.1037/ccp0000471
Mechanisms and moderators of intervention efficacy for soldiers with untreated alcohol use disorder.
L. Rodriguez (2020)
Personalized Normative Feedback for College Student Condom Use
S. M. Shah (2018)
10.1111/add.14444
Developing accurate and transparent low-risk drinking guidelines: implications for providers, patients and health information consumers.
Michael A Cucciare (2019)
10.1007/s40429-016-0117-8
Addictive Behavior Interventions Among College Students
E. R. Jeffries (2016)
Value source, value priming, and social norms as predictors of engaging in minor moral/legal violations
Courtney J. Fea (2017)
Gambling Behaviour Data and Modalities of Persuasive Interaction for Enabling Responsible Online Gambling
George Drosatos (2018)
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.08.016
Cross-cultural examination of college drinking culture in Spain, Argentina, and USA: Measurement invariance testing of the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale.
Adrian J. Bravo (2017)
10.1111/acer.13995
Incorporating Writing into a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce Problem Drinking Among College Students
C. M. Young (2019)
10.1080/10826084.2020.1833929
College Students' Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use: A Social Network Analytic Approach.
Alex M Russell (2020)
10.1186/s12879-020-4896-0
A randomized controlled trial study of the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary impact of SITA (SMS as an Incentive To Adhere): a mobile technology-based intervention informed by behavioral economics to improve ART adherence among youth in Uganda
S. MacCarthy (2020)
10.1111/acer.14270
Longitudinal Associations Between Perceptions of Peer Group Drinking Norms and Students' Alcohol Use Frequency Within College Sport Teams.
Scott Graupensperger (2020)
10.1080/09540121.2019.1622630
Lessons learned from a mobile technology-based intervention informed by behavioral economics to improve ART adherence among youth in Uganda
S. MacCarthy (2019)
10.1111/ajad.12686
A quantification of the alcohol use‐consequences association in college student and clinical populations: A large, multi‐sample study
M. A. Prince (2018)
10.1177/0044118X17714808
Misperceiving A Code of Silence: Peer Support for Telling Authorities About Weapons at School Among Middle School and High School Students in the United States
J. Perkins (2017)
10.1111/dar.13140
A comparison of global and egocentric network approaches for assessing peer alcohol use among college students in the United States.
Alex M Russell (2020)
10.1007/s11121-016-0742-4
Prototype Willingness Model Drinking Cognitions Mediate Personalized Normative Feedback Efficacy
Melissa A. Lewis (2016)
10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106060
Demographic differences in perceived social norms of drug and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latinx and non-Hispanic White college students.
Karlyn A. Edwards (2019)
Norm effects on eating behaviour: the role of social identity
Jinyu Liu (2018)
Targeting Perceived Risk Through an Online Personalized Feedback Intervention for Cannabis-Using College Students
Katherine Walukevich-Dienst (2019)
10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.019
Putting multisite college alcohol research into context: A call to assess the drinking culture on college campuses.
J. L. Martin (2018)
10.1001/jama.2018.12086
Screening and Behavioral Counseling Interventions to Reduce Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force
E. O’Connor (2018)
10.1007/s10461-017-1691-z
Actual Versus Perceived HIV Testing Norms, and Personal HIV Testing Uptake: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study in Rural Uganda
J. Perkins (2017)
10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.05.004
Cognitive factors and addiction.
C. Neighbors (2019)
10.7717/peerj.2114
An exploratory pilot study of mechanisms of action within normative feedback for adult drinkers
A. Kuerbis (2016)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar