Novel Mutations In The Toll Like Receptor Genes Cause Hyporesponsiveness To Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Infection
Toll like receptors play a central role in the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Mutations in TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 genes may change the PAMP reorganization ability which causes altered responsiveness to the bacterial pathogens. A case control study, performed to assess the association between TLR gene mutations and susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), revealed novel mutations (TLR1 - Ser150Gly and Val220Met; TLR2 - Phe670Leu) that hindered either PAMP recognition or further downstream TLR pathway activation. A cytokine expression experiments (IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-&x03B3;) in the challenged mutant and wild type moDCs (mocyte derived dendritic cells) confirmed the negative impact of these mutations and altered TLR downstream activation. Further In silico analysis of the TLR1 and TLR4 ectodomains (ECD) revealed the polymorphic nature of the central ECD and irregularities in the central LRR motifs. The most critical positions that may alter the pathogen recognition ability of TLR were: the 9th amino acid position in LRR motif (TLR1, LRR10) and 4th residue downstream to LRR domain (exta LRR region of TLR4). The study describes novel mutations in the TLRs and presents their association with the MAP infection.