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Atenolol Vs Enalapril In Young Hypertensive Patients After Successful Repair Of Aortic Coarctation

G. Salvo, B. Castaldi, S. Gala, L. Baldini, F. D. Gaizo, F. D’Aiello, A. Mormile, A. Rea, G. Scognamiglio, G. Pacileo, S. Keating, B. Fadel, L. Berrino, A. Perna, M. Russo, R. Calabro'
Published 2016 · Medicine

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Late arterial hypertension has been identified as a major predictor for morbidity and mortality in aortic coarctation (AoC) patients. Few data are available about efficacy and tolerability of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors vs beta-blockers in young AoC patients. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy on 24-h blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular mass/height2.7 (LVMI), of atenolol vs enalapril. We enrolled consecutive AoC hypertensive patients with (a) no history of BP treatment or after >48 h of withdrawn, (b) aged 6–20 years, (c) body mass index (BMI) <90th percentile for age and sex, (d) >12 months from a successful AoC repair and (e) no major associated cardiovascular abnormalities. All patient were evaluated with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, standard echocardiography, strain–strain rate imaging, at enrolment, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. We studied 51 AoC patients (13±3.9 years, BMI: 21.4±4.3 kg m–2). Patients were randomly assigned at atenolol treatment (n=26), or enalapril treatment (n=25). The mean follow-up duration was 11±2 months. Both drugs were able to significantly reduce 24-systolic BP (SBP; atenolol: 133±11 mm Hg vs 124±16 mm Hg, P=0.016; enalapril: 135±6 mm Hg vs 127±7 mm Hg, P=0.001). Only enalapril was able to significantly reduce LVMI (47±12  vs 39.6±10 g m–2.7, P=0.016). Only in atenolol group in two cases (7.7%) drug withdrawal was needed because of adverse events. Enalapril and atenolol are similarly effective in reducing SBP. However, only enalapril demonstrated a significant reduction of LVMI. In no case, enalapril was stopped because of adverse events.
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