Artificially improving traits of cultivated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), one of the most important forage crops, is challenging due to the lack of a reference genome and an efficient genome editing protocol, which mainly result from its autotetraploidy and self-incompatibility. Here, we generate an allele-aware chromosome-level genome assembly for the cultivated alfalfa consisting of 32 allelic chromosomes by integrating high-fidelity single-molecule sequencing and Hi-C data. We further establish an efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing protocol on the basis of this genome assembly and precisely introduce tetra-allelic mutations into null mutants that display obvious phenotype changes. The mutated alleles and phenotypes of null mutants can be stably inherited in generations in a transgene-free manner by cross pollination, which may help in bypassing the debate about transgenic plants. The presented genome and CRISPR/Cas9-based transgene-free genome editing protocol provide key foundations for accelerating research and molecular breeding of this important forage crop.