In this study, preparation of Eichhornia crassipes stem biochar (ECSBC) was optimized and applied for the removal of Cd2+ from aqueous solution. To obtain the best adsorption capacity of ECSBC, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation conditions of ECSBC (OECSBC). The interactions among heating time (X1), heating temperature (X2) and heating rate (X3) were designed by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) experiments. The software gave seventeen runs experiment within the optimal conditions towards two response variables (removal rate and adsorption capacity for Cd2+). The results showed that the mathematical model could fit the experimental data very well and the significance of the influence factors followed the order as heating temperature (X2) > heating rate (X3) > heating time (X1), and the influence of interaction term is: X1 and X2 (heating time and heating temperature) > X2 and X3 (heating temperature and heating rate) > X1 and X3 (heating time and heating rate). Based on the analysis of variance and the method of numerical expected function, the optimal conditions were heating time of 2.42 h, heating temperature of 393 °C, and heating rate of 15.56 °C/min. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted the maximum removal rate and adsorption capacity were 85.2724% and 21.168 mg/g, respectively, and the experimental value of removal rate and adsorption capacity for Cd2+ were 80.70% and 20.175 mg/g, respectively, the deviation from the predicted value were 5.36% and 4.69%. The results confirmed that the RSM can optimize the preparation conditions of ECSBC, and the adsorption capacity of OECSB was improved.