GDF11 Alleviates Secondary Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage Via Attenuating Mitochondrial Dynamic Abnormality And Dysfunction
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious public health problem with high rates of death and disability. The neuroprotective effect of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) in ICH has been initially proved by our previous study. Oxidative stress (OS) plays crucial roles in mediating subsequent damage of ICH. However, whether and how mitochondrial dynamic events and function participated in ICH pathophysiology, and how mitochondrial function and OS interreacted in the neuroprotective process of GDF11 in ICH remains unclarified. Based on the rat model of ICH and in vitro cell model, we demonstrated that GDF11 could alleviate ICH induced neurological deficits, brain edema, OS status, neuronal apoptosis and inflammatory reaction. In addition, mitochondrial functional and structural impairments were obviously restored by GDF11. Treatment with antioxidant protected against erythrocyte homogenate (EH) induced cell injury by restoring OS status and mitochondrial fusion fission imbalance, which was similar to the effect of GDF11 treatment. Further, inhibition of mitochondrial division with Mdivi-1 attenuated mitochondrial functional defects and neuronal damages. In conclusion, our results for the first time proposed that GDF11 protected the post-ICH secondary injury by suppressing the feedback loop between mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial dynamic alteration, resulting in attenuated mitochondrial function and amelioration of neural damage.