2D Graphene Oxide–aptamer Conjugate Materials For Cancer Diagnosis
2D graphene oxide (GO) with large surface area, multivalent structure can easily bind single-stranded DNA/RNA (aptamers) through hydrophobic/π-stacking interactions, whereas aptamers having small size, excellent chemical stability and low immunogenicity bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity. GO–aptamer conjugate materials synthesized by integrating aptamers with GO can thus provide a better alternative to antibody-based strategies for cancer diagnostic and therapy. Moreover, GO’s excellent fluorescence quenching properties can be utilized to develop efficient fluorescence-sensing platforms. In this review, recent advances in GO–aptamer conjugate materials for the detection of major cancer biomarkers have been discussed.