Phorbol Ester Treatment Of Intact Rabbit Platelets Greatly Enhances Both The Basal And Guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate-stimulated Phospholipase D Activities Of Isolated Platelet Membranes. Physiological Activation Of Phospholipase D May Be Secondary To Activation Of Phospholipase C
Rabbit platelets were labelled with [3H]glycerol and incubated with or without phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Membranes were then isolated and assayed for phospholipase D (PLD) activity by monitoring [3H]phosphatidylethanol formation in the presence of 300 mM-ethanol. At a [Ca2+free] of 1 microM, PLD activity was detected in control membranes, but was 5.4 +/- 0.8-fold (mean +/- S.E.M.) greater in membranes from PMA-treated platelets. Under the same conditions, 10 microM-guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) stimulated PLD by 18 +/- 3-fold in control membranes, whereas PMA treatment and GTP[S] interacted synergistically to increase PLD activity by 62 +/- 12-fold. GTP[S]-stimulated PLD activity was observed in the absence of Ca2+, but was increased by 1 microM-Ca2+ (3.5 +/- 0.2-fold and 1.8 +/- 0.1-fold in membranes from control and PMA-treated platelets respectively). GTP exerted effects almost as great as those of GTP[S], but 20-30-fold higher concentrations were required. Guanosine 5′-[beta-thio]diphosphate inhibited the effects of GTP[S] or GTP, suggesting a role for a GTP-binding protein in activation of PLD. Thrombin (2 units/ml) stimulated the PLD activity of platelet membranes only very weakly and in a GTP-independent manner. The actions of PMA and analogues on PLD activity correlated with their ability to stimulate protein kinase C in intact platelets. Staurosporine, a potent protein kinase inhibitor, had both inhibitory and, at higher concentrations, stimulatory effects on the activation of PLD by PMA. The results suggest that PMA not only stimulates PLD via activation of protein kinase C but can also activate the enzyme by a phosphorylation-independent mechanism in the presence of staurosporine. However, under physiological conditions, full activation of platelet PLD may require the interplay of protein kinase C, increased Ca2+ and a GTP-binding protein, and may occur as a secondary effect of the activation of phospholipase C.