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Structure-Function Relationship Of Lipoprotein Lipase-mediated Enhancement Of Very Low Density Lipoprotein Binding And Catabolism By The Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor
Published 1996 · Chemistry, Medicine
We examined the structure-function relationship of human lipoprotein lipase (hLPL) in its ability to enhance the binding and catabolism of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in COS cells. Untransfected COS cells did not bind to or catabolize normal VLDL. Expression of wild-type hLPL by transient transfection enhanced binding, uptake, and degradation of the VLDL (a property of LPL that we call bridge function). Heparin pretreatment and a monoclonal antibody ID7 that blocks LDL receptor-binding domain of apoE both inhibited binding, and apoE2/E2 VLDL from a Type III hyperlipidemic subject did not bind. However, LDL did not reduce 125I-VLDL binding to the hLPL-expressing cells, whereas rabbit β-VLDL was an effective competitor. By contrast, LDL reduced uptake and degradation of 125I-VLDL to the same extent as excess unlabeled VLDL or β-VLDL. These data suggest that binding occurs by direct interaction of VLDL with LPL but the subsequent catabolism of the VLDL is mediated by the LDL receptor. Mutant hLPLs that were catalytically inactive, S132A, S132D, as well as the partially active mutant, S251T, and S172G, gave normal enhancement of VLDL binding and catabolism, whereas the partially active mutant S172D had markedly impaired capacity for the process; thus, there is no correlation between bridge function and lipolytic activity. A naturally occurring genetic variant hLPL, S447→Ter, has normal bridge function. The catalytic center of LPL is covered by a 21-amino acid loop that must be repositioned before a lipid substrate can gain access to the active site for catalysis. We studied three hLPL loop mutants (LPL-cH, an enzymatically active mutant with the loop replaced by a hepatic lipase loop; LPL-cP, an enzymatically inactive mutant with the loop replaced by a pancreatic lipase loop; and C216S/C239S, an enzymatically inactive mutant with the pair of Cys residues delimiting the loop substituted by Ser residues) and a control double Cys mutant, C418S/C438S. Two of the loop mutants (LPL-cH and LPL-cP) and the control double Cys mutant C418S/C438S gave normal enhancement of VLDL binding and catabolism, whereas the third loop mutant, C216S/C239S, was completely inactive. We conclude that although catalytic activity and the actual primary sequence of the loop of LPL are relatively unimportant (wild-type LPL loop and pancreatic lipase loops have little sequence similarity), the intact folding of the loop, flanked by disulfide bonds, must be maintained for LPL to express its bridge function.