Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Modified Card Sorting Test: Normative Data

P. Caffarra, G. Vezzadini, F. Dieci, F. Zonato, A. Venneri
Published 2004 · Medicine, Psychology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
The Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST), a shortened version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, proposed by Nelson in 1976 is a neuropsychological test that is widely used in clinical settings for the evaluation of executive functions in patients with focal, traumatic and degenerative brain diseases. Despite its frequent use, normative data for the MCST are scant. The aim of this study was to collect normative data for the MCST on a sample including 248 healthy individuals ranging from 20 to 90 years of age and equally distributed for education level and sex (124 males and 124 females). Performance on the MCST was scored by computing the number of categories achieved by a participant, and the number of perseverative errors. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant effect of age and education on the number of categories and perseverative errors but no effect of sex. Cut-off scores were then determined and equivalent scores computed for both the number of categories and the perseverative errors. The availability of normative data for the MCST will be very valuable in clinical settings for testing patients with focal, traumatic and degenerative brain diseases. The use of reference norms will permit a better characterisation of a patient’s impaired and spared abilities.
This paper references
A behavioral analysis of degree of reinforcement and ease of shifting to new responses in a Weigl-type card-sorting problem.
D. Grant (1948)
Normative values and neuropsychological assessment. Common problems in clinical practice and research
E. Capitani (1997)
Mehrdimensionale nicht-parametrische Normbereiche
H. Ackermann (1985)
Use of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test short forms in clinical samples
L. Smith-Seemiller (1997)
Standardizazione e taratura italiana di test neuropsicologici
H. Spinnler (1987)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder
P. Ellsworth (1980)
Neuropsychological assessment, 3rd ed.
M. Lezak (1995)
Wisconsin Card Sort Test performance in a healthy elderly population.
K. Haaland (1987)
Performance of adults aged 20 to 90 on the Abbreviated Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
B. N. Axelrod (1993)
"Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.
M. Folstein (1975)
Analysis of an abbreviated form of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
B. Axelrod (1992)
Comparison of two short forms of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
L. Robinson (1991)
Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test by normal, healthy individuals: relationship to general intellectual ability and demographic variables.
M. Obonsawin (1999)
Nelson's (1976) modified card sorting test: A review
G. Zubicaray (1996)
A simple objective test for measuring flexibility in thinking
E. A. Berg (1948)
Mehrdimensionale nicht-parametrische Normbereiche. Metodologische und medizinische Aspecte
H Ackermann (1985)
Use of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test short forms with school-age children.
L. Smith-Seemiller (2001)
A normative study of Nelson's (1976) modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in healthy older adults.
T. Lineweaver (1999)
A Modified Card Sorting Test Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Defects
H. Nelson (1976)

This paper is referenced by
Use of neuropsychological tests for the diagnosis of dementia: a survey of Italian memory clinics
A. Di Pucchio (2018)
Twenty years after Spinnler and Tognoni: new instruments in the Italian neuropsychologist’s toolbox
A. Bianchi (2008)
Cognition and emotional decision-making in chronic low back pain: an ERPs study during Iowa gambling task
Stefano Tamburin (2014)
Neuropsychological Performance in Alcohol Dependent Patients: A One-Year Longitudinal Study
Lucia Ioime (2018)
Longitudinal study of cognitive and psychiatric functions in spinocerebellar ataxia types 1 and 2
R. Fancellu (2013)
The Games for Older Adults Active Life (GOAL) Project for People With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial
Laura Fabbri (2019)
Demographic and ethnicity effects on neuropsychological test performance : implications for dementia assessment in Caribbean populations
K. Khan (2010)
Elderly with Autism: Executive Functions and Memory
H. Geurts (2012)
Brain activity during lower limb movements in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without freezing of gait
Noemi Piramide (2020)
An eye-tracker controlled cognitive battery: overcoming verbal-motor limitations in ALS
B. Poletti (2017)
Influencia del sexo y la dificultad de la tarea en el cambio atencional
Karol Gutiérrez-Ruiz (2017)
Effects of happy and sad facial expressions on the perception of time in Parkinson’s disease patients with mild cognitive impairment
Giovanna Mioni (2018)
Cognitive assessment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by means of P300-Brain Computer Interface: a preliminary study
B. Poletti (2016)
Reduplicative paramnesia for places: A comprehensive review of the literature and a new case report
Valentina Borghesani (2019)
Effects of Emotional Facial Expression on Time Perception in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.
Giovanna Mioni (2016)
Effects of square-stepping exercise on cognitive functions of older people.
Camila Vieira Ligo Teixeira (2013)
Brain plasticity in Parkinson’s disease with freezing of gait induced by action observation training
F. Agosta (2016)
Oxidative stress and genetic markers of suboptimal antioxidant defense in the aging brain: a theoretical review
Lauren E. Salminen (2014)
Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST): Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population.
J. Arango-Lasprilla (2017)
Theory of mind in Parkinson’s disease: evidences in drug-naïve patients and longitudinal effects of dopaminergic therapy
Eleonora Del Prete (2020)
Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus does not negatively affect social cognitive abilities of patients with Parkinson’s disease
I. Enrici (2017)
The long-term impact of stroke on cognition: Prevalence, predictors and assessment
S. Mahon (2018)
Accuracy of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Assessment for Differentiating Cerebral Age-related from Pathological Amyloid Deposition: A Preliminary Report from a Case-series Study
F. Lauretani (2018)
Verbal commands help the execution of endogenous movements in anarchic hand
Anna Cantagallo (2010)
REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder in Patients With Essential Tremor: What Is Its Clinical Significance?
M. Salsone (2019)
Trail Making Test Errors and Executive Function in Schizophrenia and Depression
R. Mahurin (2006)
Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST): Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.
J. C. Arango-Lasprilla (2015)
Valutazione neuropsicologica nella malattia di Parkinson
Lucia Fadda (2009)
Connected Speech Deficit as an Early Hallmark of CSF-defined Alzheimer's Disease and Correlation with Cerebral Hypoperfusion Pattern.
Giulia Mazzon (2019)
Neuropsychological assessment of patients with fibromyalgia
Rubens Goulart (2017)
Early detection of memory impairments in older adults: standardization of a short version of the verbal and nonverbal Recognition Memory Test
D. Smirni (2018)
Pisa Syndrome in Parkinson's Disease Is Associated With Specific Cognitive Alterations
C. Artusi (2019)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar