Probiotics could represent an effective alternative to the use of synthetic substances in nutrition and medicine. The data concerning the efficacy of probiotics are often contradictory. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the efficacy of probiotics by their combination with synergistically acting components of natural origin. Maltodextrins can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and are suitable for consumption. Administration ofLactobacillus paracaseitogether with maltodextrin decreased the number ofEscherichia colicolonising the jejunal mucosa of gnotobiotic piglets by 1 logarithm compared to the control group. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are naturally occurring oligosaccharides, mainly of plant origin.L. paracaseiadministered in combination with FOS significantly increased counts ofLactobacillusspp.,Bifidobacteriumspp., total anaerobes and total aerobes compared to the control group as well as theL. paracaseigroup. It also significantly decreasedClostridiumandEnterobacteriumcounts in the faeces of the weanling piglets compared with the control group. Dietary lipids influence the gastrointestinal microbiota and specifically the population of lactic acid bacteria. In gnotobiotic piglets the oral administration of an oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly increased the number ofL. paracaseiadhering to jejunal mucosa compared to the control group. Our results showed that maltodextrin KMS X-70 and PUFA can be used to enhance the effect of probiotic micro-organisms in the small intestine, and similarly FOS enhance the effect of probiotic micro-organisms in the large intestine.