Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Fermentation In The Large Intestine Of Single-stomached Animals And Its Relationship To Animal Health.

B. A. Williams, M. Verstegen, S. Tamminga
Published 2001 · Medicine, Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The phasing out of antibiotic compounds as growth promoters from the animal industry means that alternative practices will need to be investigated and the promising ones implemented in the very near future. Fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is being recognized as having important implications for health of the gut and thus of the host animal. Fermentation in single-stomached animals occurs to the largest extent in the large intestine, mainly because of the longer transit time there. The present review examines the micro-ecology of the GIT, with most emphasis on the large intestine as the most important site of fermentative activity, and an attempt is made to clarify the importance of the microfloral activity (i.e. fermentation) in relation to the health of the host. The differences between carbohydrate and protein fermentation are described, particularly in relation to their endproducts. The roles of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and NH3 in terms of their relationship to gut health are then examined. The large intestine has an important function in relation to the development of diarrhoea, particularly in terms of VFA production by fermentation and its role in water absorption. Suggestions are made as to feeds and additives (particularly those which are carbohydrate-based) which could be, or are, added to diets and which could steer the natural microbial population of the GIT. Various methods are described which are used to investigate changes in microbial populations and reasons are given for the importance of measuring the kinetics of fermentation activity as an indicator of microbial activity.
This paper references
10.1079/BJN19930144
Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran.
Y. Marsono (1993)
10.1016/0300-9629(87)90521-4
Overnight changes in circulating energy substrate concentrations in the vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)
S. Swain (1987)
10.1093/ajcn/45.5.1243
Fermentation in the human large intestine and the available substrates.
J. Cummings (1987)
Health effects of oligosaccharides
H. Tomomatsu (1994)
10.1093/ajcn/31.10.S116
Fecal flora in different populations, with special reference to diet.
S. Finegold (1978)
10.1079/BJN19880094
Fermentation of wheat bran and gum arabic in rats fed on an elemental diet.
D. J. Walter (1988)
Rotavirus and Reovirus
PS Paul (1992)
Comparison of ileal effluents, dietary fibers, and whole foods in predicting the physiological importance of colonic fermentation.
M. I. McBurney (1988)
Impact of antimicrobials on the microbial ecology of the gut
DC Savage (1980)
10.1016/B978-0-12-599920-5.50019-4
15 – Factors Affecting the Gut Microflora
A. Mallett (1988)
Of piglets, dietary proteins, and pancreatic proteases.
C. Makkink (1993)
10.1016/S0140-6736(82)90504-9
DIARRHOEA: THE FAILURE OF COLONIC SALVAGE
N. W. Read (1982)
10.1016/B978-0-12-341280-5.50020-3
CHAPTER 14 – Role of the Intestinal Microflora in Host Defense against Infection
D. Hentges (1983)
10.1007/978-94-011-2364-8_3
Metabolic interactions in the gut
I. Rowland (1992)
Effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides in young pig diets
J. Houdijk (1998)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MI.43.100189.000441
The Ecology of the Human Intestine and its Consequences for Overgrowth by Pathogens such as Clostridium Difficile
D. Waaij (1989)
10.2170/JJPHYSIOL.44.519
Stimulation of bicarbonate secretion by luminal short-chain fatty acid in the rat and human colon in vitro.
M. Dohgen (1994)
10.1016/0016-5085(84)90606-1
Intestinal flora in health and disease
G. L. Simon (1984)
10.1016/S0016-5085(84)80165-1
Colonic Compensation in Transmissible Gastroenteritis of Swine
R. Argenzio (1984)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NU.13.070193.001245
Biological effects of short-chain fatty acids in nonruminant mammals.
M. Bugaut (1993)
10.1152/AJPGI.1987.253.2.G246
Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the rat.
B. C. Radcliffe (1987)
10.1128/AEM.31.2.262-267.1976
Variation in colony counts of total viable anaerobic rumen bacteria as influenced by media and cultural methods.
J. Grubb (1976)
10.1093/ajcn/31.10.S123
Fecal flora of volunteers on controlled diets.
D. Hentges (1978)
Lactulose and its application to the food and pharmaceutical industries [Bifidus factor]
Y. Tamura (1993)
10.1016/B978-0-12-599920-5.50006-6
2 – The Bacterial Flora of the Intestine
B. Drasar (1988)
Effect of dietary protein levels on the bacterial breakdown of protein in the large intestine, and diarrhoea in early weaned piglets
G Dong (1996)
Molecular and genetic effects of dietary derived butyric acid
J. G. Smith (1995)
Influence of supplementing citruspectins to a diet with and without antibiotics on the digestibility of the pectins and the other nutrients in pigs.
R. D. de Wilde (1980)
10.1079/BJN19970215
Dose-response effects of raw potato starch on small-intestinal escape, large-bowel fermentation and gut transit time in the rat.
J. Mathers (1997)
Fermentation characteristics of the caecal contents of broiler chickens fed fine- and coarse particle diets
BA Williams (1997)
10.1093/JN/117.9.1556
Specific effect of guar gum or gum arabic on adaptation of cecal digestion to high fiber diets in the rat.
B. Tulung (1987)
Short chain fatty acids (acidifiers) as probiotics in diets for piglets
P Gálfi (1996)
10.3168/JDS.S0022-0302(83)81856-6
Effect of carbohydrate limitation on degradation and utilization of casein by mixed rumen bacteria.
J. Russell (1983)
10.1079/BJN19870010
Comparative effects of dietary wheat bran and its morphological components (aleurone and pericarp-seed coat) on volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rat.
B. Cheng (1987)
Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology
intestinal ecosystem (1988)
Post-weaning Diarrhoea of Piglets: Feeding and Escherichia coli. Proefverslag nummer P 1.159
Bruininx EMAM (1996)
10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00019-9
The living gut: An introduction to micro-organisms in nutrition
P. Dubeski (1997)
10.3109/00365529309096081
Fermentation of dietary fibre by human colonic bacteria: disappearance of, short-chain fatty acid production from, and potential water-holding capacity of, various substrates.
L. Bourquin (1993)
10.1016/0377-8401(94)90171-6
A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds.
M. Theodorou (1994)
10.1093/ajcn/31.10.S33
Some current concepts in intestinal bacteriology.
W. C. Moore (1978)
10.1177/014860719401800104
Famine, fiber, fatty acids, and failed colonic absorption: does fiber fermentation ameliorate diarrhea?
W. Roediger (1994)
10.1136/gut.28.10.1221
Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood.
J. Cummings (1987)
10.1159/000407182
Bacterial Adaptation to Lactase Deficiency
M. Hill (1983)
Gas in the alimentary canal In Handbook of Physiology, Section 6: Alimentary Canal, vol. V – Bile, Digestion, Ruminal Physiology, pp
DH Calloway (1968)
10.1128/AEM.27.5.961-979.1974
Human fecal flora: the normal flora of 20 Japanese-Hawaiians.
W. Moore (1974)
10.1079/BJN19900057
Large bowel fermentation in rats given diets containing raw peas (Pisum sativum).
J. Goodlad (1990)
10.1159/000399572
Gums and hydrocolloids in nutrition.
J. Adrian (1976)
10.1079/BJN19930050
Complex carbohydrate digestion and large bowel fermentation in rats given wholemeal bread and cooked haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) fed in mixed diets.
F. Key (1993)
10.1128/AEM.20.5.789-792.1970
Distribution of bacteria in feces of swine.
G. Rall (1970)
10.1042/CS0510287
Potassium transport across the distal colon in man.
C. Salas-Coll (1976)
10.1046/J.1462-2920.2000.00146.X
Comparison of microbial populations in model and natural rumens using 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted probes.
C. Ziemer (2000)
10.12938/BIFIDUS1982.5.1_37
Effects of Fructooligosaccharides on Intestinal Flora and Human Health
H. Hidaka (1986)
10.1079/BJN19970149
Compared effects of three oligosaccharides on metabolism of intestinal microflora in rats inoculated with a human faecal flora.
Z. Djouzi (1997)
10.1016/0377-8401(94)90147-3
Evidence for a high efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis in the digestive tract of adult sows fed supplements of fibrous feedstuffs
M. Kirchgessner (1994)
Environment and gastroenteritis
EE Vaughan (1983)
10.1016/b978-0-12-599920-5.x5001-8
Role of the gut flora in toxicity and cancer
I. Rowland (1988)
10.3177/JNSV.38.103
Simultaneous determination of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide of breath using gas-solid chromatography.
K. Tsuji (1992)
10.1093/AJCN/37.2.253
Pectin digestion in humans.
W. D. Holloway (1983)
10.1093/JN/126.1.280
Lactitol enhances short-chain fatty acid and gas production by swine cecal microflora to a greater extent when fermenting low rather than high fiber diets.
A. Piva (1996)
10.3109/10408448509041324
The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities.
I. Rowland (1985)
10.1016/B978-0-12-599920-5.50007-8
3 – Alimentary Tract Physiology: Interactions between the Host and its Microbial Flora
J. Heneghan (1988)
10.1016/0378-1135(79)90004-X
Evaluation of low nutrient, high fibre diets for the prevention of porcine Escherichia coli enterotoxaemia
Bertschinger Hu (1979)
10.1136/vr.122.19.462
Transmissible gastroenteritis
D. Garwes (1988)
The relationship between nitrogen metabolism in the hind gut and nitrogen excretion
VC Mason (1977)
Anaerobe Laboratory manual
L. Holdeman (1977)
10.1093/jn/130.2.391S
Aspects of in vitro and in vivo research approaches directed toward identifying probiotics and prebiotics for human use.
G. Gibson (2000)
10.1017/S0003356100020870
The effects of dietary fibre, lactose and antibiotic on the levels of skatole and indole in faeces and subcutaneous fat in growing pigs
S. M. Hawe (1992)
Comparative observations on selected probiotics and olaquindox as feed additives for piglets around weaning . 2 . Effect on villus length and crypt depth in the jejunum , ileum , caecum and colon
JT Nousiainen (1991)
10.1097/00004836-198812000-00003
Should we routinely perform liver biopsy in suspected alcoholic liver disease?
C. E. Atterbury (1988)
10.1079/NRR19960004
Nutritional implications of resistant starch.
N. Asp (1996)
The secretory response of the digestive tract to the diet
H Jörgensen (1985)
A molecular view of the intestinal ecosystem.
E. Vaughan (2000)
10.1111/J.1439-0396.1991.TB00289.X
Comparative observations on selected probiotics and olaquindox used as feed additives for piglets around weaning
J. Nousiainen (1991)
10.1016/S0016-5085(19)30508-6
Absorption of short-chain fatty acids by the colon.
H. Ruppin (1980)
10.1136/gut.19.9.819
Short chain fatty acid absorption by the human large intestine.
N. Mcneil (1978)
10.1079/BJN19950127
Comparative study of the fermentative characteristics of inulin and different types of fibre in rats inoculated with a human whole faecal flora.
N. Roland (1995)
The bacterial flora of the stomach and small intestine.
B. Drasar (1989)
The occurrence and chemistry of resistant starch
AB Blakeney (1993)
10.1006/JSRE.1995.1037
Pectin improves colonic function in rat short bowel syndrome.
J. Roth (1995)
10.1093/JNCI/57.2.371
The relationship between diet and rat fecal bacterial enzymes implicated in colon cancer.
B. Goldin (1976)
10.1042/BJ1420401
Production and utilization of acetate in mammals.
S. E. Knowles (1974)
10.1271/BBB.58.2288
Effects of Isomaltooligosaccharides with Different Degrees of Polymerization on Human Fecal Bifidobacteria
T. Kaneko (1994)
10.1128/AEM.55.11.2894-2898.1989
Influence of pH, nutrient availability, and growth rate on amine production by Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens.
C. Allison (1989)
Methods for studying gut microbes
RTJ Clarke (1977)
10.1007/BF01312224
Effect of short-chain fatty acid on sodium absorption in isolated human colon perfused through the vascular bed
W. Roediger (1981)
Ein Beitrag zum antibioticafreien Absetzen der Ferkel ( Antibiotic - free weaning of piglets )
DJ Walter (1990)
Pathophysiology of diarrhoea: alterations in fluid and electrolyte transport.
Dobbins Jw (1981)
Short chain fatty acids as metabolic regulators of ion absorption in the colon.
Roediger We (1989)
The Effects on Human Health of Subtherapeutic Use of Antimicrobials in Animal Feeds
Division on Earth (1980)
10.1016/S0016-5085(82)80339-9
Utilization of nutrients by isolated epithelial cells of the rat colon.
W. Roediger (1982)
10.1079/BJN19880130
Influence of starches of low digestibility on the rat caecal microflora.
A. Mallett (1988)
10.1159/000200229
The effects of enterotoxins and short-chain fatty acids on water and electrolyte fluxes in ileal and colonic loops in vivo in the rat.
B. S. Ramakrishna (1990)
Differences in potential fermentative capabilities of four sections of porcine digestive tract.
B. A. Williams (1997)
10.1016/c2013-0-12555-x
The Rumen and Its Microbes
R. Hungate (1966)
Short chain fatty acids and colonic dysfunction in cholera
BS Ramakrishna (1993)
10.1007/978-94-011-2364-8_2
Bacterial interactions in the gut
P. Raibaud (1992)
Probiotics : the scientific basis
R. Fuller (1992)
10.1111/J.1365-2672.1978.TB00801.X
Fluctuations in Escherichia coli O-serotypes in pigs throughout life in the presence and absence of antibiotic treatment.
A. H. Linton (1978)
10.1152/AJPGI.1981.241.5.G397
Conservation of mannitol, lactulose, and raffinose by the human colon.
D. R. Saunders (1981)
Influence of environmental factors on the onset of digestive disorders of the weaned piglet.
F. Madec (1983)
10.1016/S0924-2244(96)10038-8
Production, properties and applications of food-grade oligosaccharides
R. Crittenden (1996)
10.1079/9780851993447.0189
Cumulative gas-production techniques for forage evaluation.
B. Williams (2000)
10.1038/npg.els.0001415
Bacterial Fermentation
V. Müller (2001)
Colonic fluid handling in health & acute diarrhoeal diseases.
B. Ramakrishna (1996)
10.2527/1997.753700X
Influence of dietary factors on nitrogen partitioning and composition of urine and feces of fattening pigs.
T. Cảnh (1997)
10.1093/AJCN/35.6.1417
The effects of antibiotics in the weanling pig diet on growth and the excretion of volatile phenolic and aromatic bacterial metabolites.
M. Yokoyama (1982)
10.1079/BJN19850062
The digestion of fibre by pigs. 2. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in large intestine digesta.
G. Stanogias (1985)
An example of why microbial counts are not always useful to investigate microflora activity was reported in a study
Prins (1985)
A new look on the role of fibre in the diet of pigs
SA Edwards (1996)
Effects of dietary carbohydrates and organic acid additions on pathogenic E . coli and other microorganisms in the weanling pig
B Svensmark (1996)
10.1016/S0016-5085(88)80078-7
Fecal lactate and ulcerative colitis.
P. Vernia (1988)
10.1136/GUT.35.1_SUPPL.S35
Effects of short chain fatty acids on gut morphology and function.
W. Scheppach (1994)
10.2527/1993.7161503X
Effect of galactan on selected microbial populations and pH and volatile fatty acids in the ileum of the weanling pig.
A. Mathew (1993)
10.2527/JAS1982.553599X
Effect of starch infusion at the terminal ileum on nitrogen balance and apparent digestibilities of nitrogen and amino acids in pigs fed meat-and-bone and soybean meal diets.
R. Misir (1982)
10.1001/ARCHNEUR.1960.03840090124020
Handbook of Physiology.
F. Plum (1960)
An in vitro test for prebiotics
BA Williams (2000)
Feeding trial in pigs with a diet containing sodium n-butyrate.
P. Gálfi (1990)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NU.06.070186.001103
Gastrointestinal microflora in mammalian nutrition.
D. Savage (1986)
10.3109/00365528809103964
Degradation of amino acids to short-chain fatty acids in humans. An in vitro study.
H. Rasmussen (1988)
10.1017/S0022172400021653
Colonization resistance of the digestive tract in conventional and antibiotic-treated mice.
D. Waaij (1971)
10.3402/MEHD.V3I6.7555
Effects of Soybean Oligosaccharides on Human Faecal Flora
K. Hayakawa (1990)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NU.12.070192.000315
The physiological effect of dietary fiber: an update.
M. Eastwood (1992)
10.1051/ANIMRES:19950505
A preliminary study using the cumulative gas production technique to compare the kinetics of different fermentations by use of standard substrates
B. Williams (1995)
10.1016/0015-6264(79)90299-2
Microbial ecology of the gut
R. Clarke (1977)
10.1111/J.1574-6968.1992.TB05764.X
Estimation of short-chain fatty acid production from protein by human intestinal bacteria based on branched-chain fatty acid measurements
G. Macfarlane (1992)
10.1172/JCI111847
Carbohydrate fermentation in the human colon and its relation to acetate concentrations in venous blood.
E. Pomare (1985)
10.1016/0300-9629(88)90668-8
Fermentation of polysaccharides and absorption of short chain fatty acids in the mammalian hindgut.
G. Rechkemmer (1988)
10.1172/JCI111738
Influence of chronic lactulose ingestion on the colonic metabolism of lactulose in man (an in vivo study).
C. Florent (1985)
Intestinal methanogenesis in primates--a genetic and evolutionary approach.
J. H. Hackstein (1995)
10.1146/annurev.micro.43.1.69
The ecology of the human intestine and its consequences for overgrowth by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile.
D. van der Waaij (1989)
10.1128/AEM.64.10.3854-3859.1998
Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of 16S rRNA from Human Fecal Samples Reveals Stable and Host-Specific Communities of Active Bacteria
E. Zoetendal (1998)
10.1128/IAI.45.1.185-191.1984
Role of volatile fatty acids in colonization resistance to Clostridium difficile.
R. Rolfe (1984)
10.1002/PATH.1700620412
Bacterial breakdown of structural starches and starch products in the digestive tract of ruminant and non-ruminant mammals.
F. Baker (1950)
10.1016/0305-0491(87)90433-0
Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals.
M. Bugaut (1987)
Epidemiological studies of piglet diarrhoea in intensively managed Danish sow herds. IV. Pathogenicity of porcine rotavirus.
B. Svensmark (1989)
Recent Advances in Microbial Ecology, pp
T Midtvedt (1989)
Fermentation kinetics to assess microbial activity of gastrointestinal microflora
BA Williams (2000)
Fluctuations in E. coli O-serotypes in pigs throughout life in the presence and absence of antibiotic treatment
AH Linton (1978)
Intracaecal infusion of carbohydrates – a model for ‘fermentative diarrhea
W Drochner (1987)
10.1016/S0140-6736(83)92478-9
FERMENTATION IN THE HUMAN LARGE INTESTINE: EVIDENCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH
JohnH. Cummings (1983)
10.1128/IAI.39.2.686-703.1983
Survival and implantation of Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract.
R. Freter (1983)
10.1128/IAI.53.1.116-123.1986
Factors responsible for increased susceptibility of mice to intestinal colonization after treatment with streptomycin.
J. Que (1986)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NU.14.070194.001501
Nutritional role of resistant starch: chemical structure vs physiological function.
G. Annison (1994)
10.1079/PNS19840030
Urea and ammonia metabolism in the human large intestine.
O. Wrong (1984)
10.1097/00006454-198601001-00006
The protective function of the indigenous intestinal flora
D. Hentges (1986)
10.1146/annurev.ph.24.030162.000545
The digestive system.
N. Hightower (1962)
Danish sow herds
Y Tamura (1993)
The role of mannan oligosaccharide ( Bio - Mos ) in animal nutrition
TF Savage (1996)
10.1056/NEJM200002033420502
Amylase-resistant starch plus oral rehydration solution for cholera.
B. Ramakrishna (2000)
Non-digestible oligosaccharides and bifidobacteria - implications for health
G. Gibson (1994)
10.3168/JDS.S0022-0302(93)77547-5
Nutrient metabolism by gut tissues.
R. Britton (1993)
10.1002/JSFA.2740500109
Rates of fermentation and short chain fatty acid and gas production of six starches by human faecal microbiota
M. Mcburney (1990)
10.3168/JDS.S0022-0302(84)81331-4
Ammonia: its effects on biological systems, metabolic hormones, and reproduction.
W. Visek (1984)
10.1002/FOOD.19870310551
Colonization resistance of the digestive tract — Mechanism and clinical consequences
D. Waaij (1987)
10.1042/BJ1300791
Transport of acetate and butyrate in the hind-gut of rabbits.
S. J. Henning (1972)
10.1128/AEM.60.6.1897-1904.1994
Effect of dietary fiber on microbial activity and microbial gas production in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.
B. Jensen (1994)
Faecal lactate and ulcerative colitis
WJ Visek (1988)
10.1016/s0007-1935(17)31581-6
Clostridial infections.
M. Sterne (1981)
Recent advances in probiosis in pigs: observations on the microbiology of the pig gut.
C. S. Stewart (2001)
Stoichiometry of polysaccharide fermentation in the large intestine
JC Mathers (1993)
Faecal anions and lactate in severe ulcerative colitis
WEW Roediger (1989)
GASTROENTERITIS, NUTRITION AND ENVIRONMENT INTRODUCTION
P. Vannier (1982)
Biotechnology in the feed industry
Terry Lyons (1987)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MI.31.100177.000543
Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract.
D. Savage (1977)
10.1152/PHYSREV.1990.70.2.567
Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species.
E. Bergman (1990)
10.1128/AEM.55.10.2460-2467.1989
In vitro total-gas, CH4, H2, volatile fatty acid, and lactate kinetics studies on luminal contents from the small intestine, cecum, and colon of the pig.
J. A. Robinson (1989)
10.1111/J.1574-6968.1987.TB02352.X
Polysaccharide breakdown by mixed populations of human faecal bacteria
H. Englyst (1987)
Short chain fatty acids as metabolic regulators of ion absorption in the colon.
W. Roediger (1989)
Les différents formes de colibacillose du porc en France selon les groupes sérologiques d’E. coli. (The different forms of porcine colibacillosis in France, according to serological grouping of E
L Renault (1982)
10.1007/978-94-011-2364-8_6
Factors affecting the microecology of the gut
R. Freter (1992)
10.1079/BJN19900041
Tissue and whole-body oxygen uptake in fed and fasted steers.
J. Eisemann (1990)
Mannan - oligosaccharide : its logical role as a natural feed additive for piglets
G Stanogias (1998)
Colonization resistance of the digestive tract; mechanism and clinical consequences.
D. Vanderwaaij (1986)
Effects of food carbohydrates on large intestinal fermentation in vitro
JS Goodlad (1988)
10.1111/J.1365-2672.1993.TB02790.X
Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine.
X. Wang (1993)
10.3109/00365528809093945
The effect of starch malabsorption on fecal short-chain fatty acid excretion in man.
W. Scheppach (1988)
10.1248/CPB.26.3306
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides specifically utilizable by bifidobacteria.
K. Yazawa (1978)
10.1038/265623A0
Adherence of Escherichia coli to human mucosal cells mediated by mannose receptors
I. Ofek (1977)
Protein metabolism and nutrition.
D. Cole (1976)
10.1111/J.1439-0396.1975.TB01149.X
Bacterial activity in the hind-gut of pigs 1. Its influence on the apparent digestibility of dietary energy and fat.
V. C. Mason (1976)
10.1093/jn/130.2.403S
Probiotic immunomodulation in health and disease.
K. Erickson (2000)
10.1079/BJN19900150
Dietary modification of potential vitamin K supply from enteric bacterial menaquinones in rats.
J. Mathers (1990)
Hypersensitivity to dietary antigens as the predisposing factor in post-weaning diarrhoea
TJ Newby (1984)
D’Allaire and DJ Taylor, editors
Straw (1994)
10.1016/c2013-0-00786-4
Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition
J. T. Abrams (1982)
The bacterial flora of the stomach and small intestine.
Drasar Bs (1989)
10.1093/AJCN/42.5.778
Digestion of the polysaccharides of some cereal foods in the human small intestine.
H. Englyst (1985)
10.12938/BIFIDUS1982.2.1_17
Effects of Administration of TOS and Bifidobacterium breve 4006 on the Human Fecal Flora
R. Tanaka (1983)
10.1128/AEM.27.4.678-687.1974
Isolation, culture characteristics, and identification of anaerobic bacteria from the chicken cecum.
J. P. Salanitro (1974)
10.3177/JNSV.39.279
Effects of transgalactosylated disaccharides on the human intestinal microflora and their metabolism.
M. Ito (1993)
10.1007/BF00180540
Colonic fermentation: metabolic and clinical implications
K. Soergel (2004)
10.1007/BF01540062
Fecal anions and lactate in severe ulcerative colitis
W. Rödiger (2005)



This paper is referenced by
Einfluss kurzkettiger Fettsäuren und mikrobieller Fermenta- tionsprodukte neuartiger Oligosaccharide auf Cytotoxizität, Proliferation und Apoptose von humanen Coloncarcinom- Zelllinien Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.)
F. Naturwissenschaften (2005)
Strategies for the development of antibiotic-free diets for piglets.
J. P. Lallès (2002)
10.1111/raq.12413
Carbohydrate utilisation by tilapia: a meta‐analytical approach
Roel J. M. Maas (2020)
Chicory (Cichorium intybus L) As Fibre Source in Pig Diets Effects on Digestibility, Gut Microbiota and Performance
Emma Ivarsson (2012)
10.1016/B978-0-12-394294-4.00010-9
Digestion of kiwifruit fiber.
S. J. Henare (2013)
10.1093/jas/skaa046
Changes in cecal morphology, cell proliferation, antioxidant enzyme, volatile fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, and cytokines in piglets during the post-weaning period.
Qing-qing Deng (2020)
10.1080/1745039X.2015.1075671
Fermented and extruded wheat bran in piglet diets: impact on performance, intestinal morphology, microbial metabolites in chyme and blood lipid radicals
Manuel Kraler (2015)
10.1093/jas/skaa173
Dried yeast cell walls high in beta-glucan and mannan-oligosaccharides positively affect microbial composition and activity in the canine gastrointestinal tract in vitro
P. Van den Abbeele (2020)
10.1079/ASC42030265
The interaction between cereal type and lactose level on piglet performance and diet digestibility post weaning
J. M. O’Connell (2005)
10.1111/J.1439-0396.2004.00490.X
Pectin in pig nutrition, a comparative review.
W. Drochner (2004)
10.1002/jsfa.5753
Different concentrations of grape seed extract affect in vitro starch fermentation by porcine small and large intestinal inocula.
Dongjie Wang (2013)
Nutrient Metabolism Consumption of Raw Potato Starch Increases Colon Length and Fecal Excretion of Purine Bases in Growing Pigs 1
Daniel Martínez-Puig (2002)
10.1093/JN/132.9.2551
Weaning affects the expression of heat shock proteins in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets.
J. C. David (2002)
10.3390/ijms18102203
Gut Fermentation of Dietary Fibres: Physico-Chemistry of Plant Cell Walls and Implications for Health
B. A. Williams (2017)
10.3390/ani2020261
Mannan Oligosaccharides in Nursery Pig Nutrition and Their Potential Mode of Action
V. Halas (2012)
10.1111/J.1439-0396.2006.00668.X
Growth and parameters of microflora in intestinal and faecal samples of piglets due to application of a phytogenic feed additive.
A. Muhl (2007)
10.4995/wrs.2018.9726
Influence of inoculum type (ileal, caecal and faecal) on the in vitro fermentation of different sources of carbohydrates in rabbits
Rodrigo Abad-Guzmán (2018)
10.1079/NRR2006123
Influence of dietary components on development of the microbiota in single-stomached species.
E. Bauer (2006)
10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2008.06.015
Effects of the insoluble and soluble dietary fibre on the physicochemical properties of digesta and the microbial activity in early weaned piglets
F. Molist (2009)
10.1080/1745039X.2011.621285
Effect of different carbohydrates on in vitro fermentation activity and bacterial numbers of porcine inocula under osmotic stress conditions
Franziska Rink (2011)
10.3945/jn.116.240564
Ileal Digesta Nondietary Substrates from Cannulated Pigs Are Major Contributors to In Vitro Human Hindgut Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.
Carlos A Montoya (2017)
10.1007/s00253-015-6468-6
Comparison of the biological activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed intracellular EGF, extracellular EGF, and tagged EGF in early-weaned pigs
Shujin Wang (2015)
Strategic use of additives: impact on gastro-intestinal equilibrium-health in piglets.
A. Soraci (2010)
10.3390/ani9121039
Effects of Increasing Levels of Defatted Rice Bran on Intestinal Physical Barrier and Bacteria in Finishing Pigs
Hansheng Wang (2019)
10.1128/mSystems.00324-18
Porcine Feed Efficiency-Associated Intestinal Microbiota and Physiological Traits: Finding Consistent Cross-Locational Biomarkers for Residual Feed Intake
Ursula M. McCormack (2019)
Effect of rate and extent of starch digestion on performance, physiology and behaviour of broilers and laying hens
E. Herwig (2018)
10.1186/s40781-017-0142-8
Effect of Dietary sugar beet pulp supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal Microflora, blood profiles and Diarrhea incidence in weaning pigs
C. L. Yan (2017)
Adición de oligomananos o nucleótidos a dietas con baja proteína para cerdos en finalización
Angélica Urbina (2008)
10.1139/cjm-2015-0811
Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.
Sandra Rayén Quilodrán-Vega (2016)
10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2010.10.006
In vitro evaluation of the fermentation characteristics of the carbohydrate fractions of hulless bar
Rajesh Jha (2011)
10.19136/era.a4n11.1116
Fermentación cecal in vitro de cerdos Pelón Mexicano y Cuino Mexicano suplementados con cromo
Ignacio Arturo Domínguez-Vara (2017)
10.4236/OJVM.2014.43003
Evaluation of the immunoregulatory capacities of feed microbial materials in porcine intestinal immune and epithelial cells.
Naosuke Kumagae (2014)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar